Glossary Entries beginning with P

Glossary of Agricultural Production, Programs and Policy

4th Edition

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P (support practice factor)
See Support practice (factor) (P).

See Also: 
Support practice (factor) (P).  

P.L. 480
Common name for the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954. The act sought to expand foreign markets for U.S. agricultural products, combat hunger, and encourage economic development in developing countries. Title I of the Food for Peace Program, as it is called, made U S. agricultural commodities available through long-term dollar credit sales at low interest rates for up to 40 years. It is administered by the Foreign Agricultural Service. Donations for emergency food relief needs were provided under Title II, an authority administered by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Title III, administered by theUSAID, authorized Food for Development grants. The Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 made fundamental changes in the U.S. food aid program, including shortening the maximum repayment term of Title I loans, from 40 to 30 years, and expanding Title II to include non-emergency assistance. The Act also authorized a new Title III Food for Development Program that provides government-to-government grant food assistance to the least developed countries. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 authorized agreements with private entities under Title I, allowed Title II local currencies to be used in other countries besides those in whichTitle II commodities are sold, and broadened the range of commodities available under Title IV. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Title III, Subtitle A) reauthorized the programs through 2007, added conflict prevention as aprogram objective, provided for the streamlining of the Food for Peace Program, and authorized the sale of commodities to be at reasonable market prices in the economy where thecommodities are sold. As a bona fide overseas food aid program that is not used to circumvent export subsidy reduction commitments, P.L. 480 is consistent with the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. Also Public Law 480. See John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program (FTF).

See Also: 
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954.  authorized.  export subsidy.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  food aid program.  Food for Development.  Food for Peace Program.  Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990.  Foreign Agricultural Service.  grant.  John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program (FTF).  market.  prices.  program.  Public Law 480.  Title I.  Title II.  Title III.  Title IV.  U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).  

P.L. 566
See Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act of 1954.

See Also: 
Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act of 1954.  

PIK and roll
A procedure by which producers may attempt to profit from situations in which certificate exchange values (posted county prices) are below nonrecourse loan rates. With this procedure, a producer may place the eligible commodity under the nonrecourse loan at the loan rate and use generic commodity certificates, when available, to exchange forCommodity Credit Corporation commodities. If the posted county price is below the nonrecourse loan rate, then the producer may be able to acquire the quantity placed under loan for less than the proceeds of the nonrecourse loan, in addition to saving interest and storage payments.

See Also: 
certificate.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  eligible commodity.  loan rate.  nonrecourse loan.  posted county price.  producer.  under loan.  

PIK certificates
See Payment-in-Kind, and Generic commodity certificate(s).

See Also: 
Generic commodity certificate(s).  Payment-in-Kind.  

Pack
The quantity of fresh or processed product placed in containers such as cans. It generally refers to the output of a processing industry; for example, a frozen pack of broccoli.

See Also: 
processed.  processing.  

Packer (livestock)
(1) In livestock marketing, any person engaged in the business of buying cattle in commerce for purposes of slaughter; of manufacturing or preparing meats or meat food products from cattle, for sale or shipment in commerce; or of marketing meats or meat food products from cattle in a raw form, acting as a wholesale meat broker, dealer, or distributor. (2) For federal cattle price reporting purposes, (a) a cattle processing plant that is federally inspected; (b) for any calendar year, a cattle processingplant that slaughtered an average of at least 125,000 head of cattle per year during the immediately preceding five calendar years; and (c) in the case of a cattle processing plant that did not slaughter cattle during the immediately preceding five calendar years, the USDA considers the plant capacity of the processing plant in determining whether the processing plant should be considered a packer under the terms of the price reporting program. (3) For hog price reporting, packer has the same meaning as that set forth in Sec. 201 of the Packers and Stockyards Act, except that it includes only those packers that slaughtered in excess of 100,000 head annually.

See Also: 
dealer.  livestock.  marketing.  meat.  meat broker.  Packers and Stockyards Act.  processing.  program.  

Packer concentration
The belief that market dominance, due to the concentration of meat slaughter within the hands of relatively few companies, has led to a lack of competition resulting in low red meat prices for producers. In 1996, a Congressionally mandated USDA study on concentration in the red meat industry failed to provide definitive evidence that concentration had an appreciable effect on cattle prices. A USDA advisory committee recommended increased monitoring and enforcement of antitrust and regulatory policy, limiting packer activities regarding price differentiation, improving collection and reporting of market data, and value-based pricing. Congress later adopted the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999. See Big Three, and Concentration.

See Also: 
Big Three.  concentration.  Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999.  market.  meat.  packer.  red meat.  value-based pricing.  

Packer trust
The Packers and Stockyards Act, as amended, provides that all livestock purchased by a packer (whose average annual purchases of livestock exceed $500,000) from cash sellers, and all inventories of or receivables or proceeds from meat, meat food products, or livestock products derived from such will be held by such packer in trust for the benefit of all unpaid cash sellers of such livestock until full payment has been received by the unpaid sellers. To ensure that producersare paid promptly and fully, the Packers and Stockyards program requires the registration and bonding of each marketing agency and dealer.

See Also: 
dealer.  livestock.  meat.  packer.  packer (.  Packers and Stockyards Act.  Packers and Stockyards program.  

Packer-owned cattle
Cattle that a packer owns for at least 14 days immediately before slaughter.

See Also: 
packer.  

Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921 (P.L.67-51) (7 U.S.C. ?? 181 et seq.)
Signed into law August 15, 1921. The Act, as amended, was enacted to protect (a) producers and consumers against unfair business practices in the marketing of livestock, meat, and poultry; and (b) members of the livestock marketing and meat and poultry industries against unfair, deceptive, discriminatory, and monopolistic practices of competitors.

See Also: 
livestock.  marketing.  meat.  poultry.  

Packers and Stockyards Administration (P&S)
See Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA).

See Also: 
Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA).  

Packers and Stockyards program (P&S; P&SP)
Under the Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921, the USDA is authorized to assure free and open competition, fair trade practices, and financial protection to the meat, livestock, and poultry industries by insuring timely payments, auditing accounts, investigating suspected fraudulent marketing and bribery, and checking the accuracy of scales and weighing practices. The P&S is now part of the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration.

See Also: 
authorized.  Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration.  livestock.  marketing.  meat.  Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921.  poultry.  

Packing house
A structure used for the cleaning, sorting, grading, packing, or storage of agricultural products.

See Also: 
grading.  storage.  

Packing plant
A facility where cattle are slaughtered and processed.

See Also: 
processed.  

Packing shed
A facility for the grading, cleaning, washing, and packing of fruits and vegetables.

See Also: 
grading.  

Paddock(s)
A grazing area that is a subdivision of a grazing management unit and is enclosed and separated from other areas by a fence or barrier.

See Also: 
grazing.  grazing management unit.  

Paddy kernels
(1) Whole or broken unhulled kernels of rice. (2) Whole or broken kernels of brown rice and whole or broken kernels of milled rice having portions of the hull remaining that cover one-eighth or more of the whole or broken kernel.

See Also: 
broken.  brown rice.  hull.  milled rice.  

Paddy rice
See Rough rice.

See Also: 
Rough rice.  

Paid diversion program
Also Paid land diversion. See Diversion payments.

See Also: 
Diversion payments.  Paid land diversion.  

Paid land diversion (PLD)
See Diversion payments.

See Also: 
Diversion payments.  

Palatability, palatable
Acceptable to the taste or sufficiently agreeable in flavor to be eaten.

Pale, soft, exudative (PSE)
An undesirable condition of muscle, especially noticeable in pork, that is often stress related. The lean meat is watery. Also Pale, soft, watery (PSW).

See Also: 
muscle.  Pale, soft, watery (PSW).  

Pale, soft, watery (PSW)
See Pale, soft, exudative (PSE).

See Also: 
Pale, soft, exudative (PSE).  

Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI)
An index developed in 1965 to measure the "departure" of the moisture supply. The index is on the supply-and-demand concept of a water balance equation, taking into account more than a precipitation deficit at only specific locations. The objective of the PDSI is to provide a measurement of moisture conditions that are "standardized," so that comparisons using the index could be made between locations and between months. The PDSI is calculated based on precipitation and temperature data as well as the local Available Water Content of the soil. The USDA has used the Index to determine when to grant emergency drought assistance. See Crop Moisture Index (CMI).

See Also: 
Crop Moisture Index (CMI).  grant.  soil.  

Pampas grass
A giant perennial grass with saw-toothed leaves and white to pink flower plumes. Pampas grass seeds itself freely, dispersing long distances. Once established, it can crowd out native plants, damage grazing lands, and create a fire hazard. Pampas grass is a particular pest in California where it has invaded and degraded habitats along the entire California coastline.

See Also: 
grazing lands.  perennial.  

Panicle
The terminal grain-producing shoot of a rice plant.

See Also: 
grain.  plant.  

Parasitoid
An insect that is parasitic only in its immature stages, killing its host in the process of its development, and free-living as an adult.

Parasitologist
One who studies internal and external parasites.

Parastatal
A business, with some degree of autonomy, that is otherwise owned and controlled by a government.

Paratill (paraplow)
Deep tillage with little disturbance of surface residue. It can be done with a no-till planter.

See Also: 
no-till.  residue.  

Parboiled rice
Rough rice soaked in warm water under pressure, steamed, and dried before being milled. Because of this process, the rice retains more naturalnutrients but requires a longer cooking period (25 minutes) than regular rice (20 minutes). Since this process eliminates the surface starch common to regular rice, it insures a separateness of grain that is especially desirable for kitchens preparing rice in large quantities.

See Also: 
grain.  milled.  process.  Rough rice.  

Parcel
A contiguous tract of land with uniform tenure and land characteristics.

See Also: 
tenure.  

Parent tree
Any tree whose seeds are used to produce progeny for use in genetic experimentation. Usually the parent tree is selected because it displays characteristics either interesting from a research standpoint or desirable in an operational forest management program.

Parity
(1) A relationship that defines a level of purchasing power for a unit of farm commodity equal to an earlier base period, which is sometimes proposed as a fair price. (2) Equality in the present purchasing power of a unit (bushel, hundredweight) of a product compared with its purchasing power during the base period 1910-14. Parity price for any commodity equals its ten-year average price, multiplied by the ratio of the current Parity Index compared to the ten-year average of the Prices-Received Index. The Parity Index reflects prices paid by producers for items of production and family living including interest, taxes, and wage rates. Both the Parity Index and Prices-Received Index are expressed on a base of 1910-14 equaling one hundred. The near threefold gains in farm productivity are not reflected in parity prices. (3) In terms of pig production, the number of times that a breeding female has given birth to a litter of pigs. (4) Gross income from agriculture that will provide the farm operator and his family with a standard of living equivalent to those afforded persons dependent upon other gainful occupation. For an agricultural commodity for any year, gross income that bears the same relationship to parity income from agriculture for such year as the average gross income from such commodity for the preceding ten calendar years bears to the average gross income from agriculture for such ten calendar years. See Parity price(s).

See Also: 
agricultural commodity.  base period.  breeding.  bushel.  commodity.  farm.  hundredweight.  litter.  Parity Index.  Parity price(s).  Prices-Received Index.  

Parity Index
The index of prices paid by producers for items used in production including interest, taxes, and wage rates.

Parity price(s)
(1) A measurement of the purchasing power of a unit (bushel, hundredweight) of farm product. Parity was originally defined as the price that gives a unit of a commodity the same purchasing power today as it had in the 1910-14 base period. In 1948, the parity price formula was revised to allow parity prices for individual commodities to reflect a more recent relationship of farm and nonfarm prices by making the base price dependent on the most recent ten-year average price for commodities. Except for wool, mohair, and certain minor tobaccos, parity was not generally used to set price-support levels for any program commodity. However, parity remains part of permanent legislation. (2) The current price for a unit of a farm commodity that would give it the same relative purchasing power for goods and services that it had in the 1910-14 base period, adjusted for the changes in its price over the past ten years, compared with changes in the prices received by producers for all farm products during that same period.

See Also: 
base period.  base price.  bushel.  commodity.  farm.  hundredweight.  mohair.  Parity.  permanent legislation.  price-support.  program.  wool.  

Parity ratio
A measure of the relative purchasing power of farm products. It is the ratio between the prices-received index by producers for all farm products and the prices-paid index by producers for commodities and services used in farm production and family living. The parity ratio measures relationships between prices received and prices paid. It does not measure farm income or producers' total purchasing power. It does not reflect producers' off-farm income, government payments, or producers' assets.

See Also: 
farm.  farm income.  prices-paid index.  prices-received index.  

Partial county yield average
Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1102(d) & (e)), if the yield per plantedacre on a farm of an oilseed or covered commodity for any of the 1998 through 2001 crop years was 75 percent of the county yield for that commodity, the USDA assigns a yield that is equal to 75 percent of the county yield. Also Plug.

See Also: 
acre.  commodity.  covered commodity.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  oilseed.  Plug.  

Partial payment(s)
Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Secs. 1104(f)(2) and 1304(g)(2)), for covered commodities and peanuts, if the USDA estimates that counter-cyclical payments will be required, producers may request scheduled partial payments to be made prior to the end of the 12-month marketing year.

See Also: 
Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  marketing year.  

Partially regulated distribution plant
A nonpool plant that is not a plant fully regulated under another federal milk marketing order, a producer-handler plant, or an exempt plant, from which there is a route disposition in the marketing area during the month.

See Also: 
exempt plant.  federal milk marketing order.  marketing area.  nonpool plant.  route disposition.  

Participation loan
A loan in which two or more lenders share in providing loan funds to a borrower. Generally, one of the lenders originates, services, and documents the loan. In practice, the Farm Service Agency has often agreed to take a subordinate lien position when participating with another lender.

See Also: 
Farm Service Agency.  lien.  loan.  

Particle drift
See Pesticide drift.

See Also: 
Pesticide drift.  

Partner(s); partner institution(s); partnership
Traditionally, the units that cooperate with the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, namely the State Agricultural Experiment Stations and the Cooperative Extension Service of the land grant institutions. See Land grant(s); land grant institution(s); land grant university(ies); land grant college(s); land grant colleges and/or universities, Cooperative Extension Service (CES), and State agricultural experiment stations (SAES).

See Also: 
Cooperative Extension Service.  Cooperative Extension Service (CES).  Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.  Land grant(s); land grant institution(s); land grant university(ies); land grant college(s); land grant colleges and/or universities.  

Partners in Quality (PIQ)
A voluntary alternative to the end-line inspection program. Individual packing houses must continually demonstrate and document their ability to pack product that meets all requirements of federal and state laws and of their customers. Packers that ensure the quality in the finished product by designing and implementing a PIQ system may issue special federal certificates daily or at a customer's request. The certificates indicate that the product was packed under a USDA-approved quality system. The effectiveness of the program is verified through periodic, unannounced USDA audits.

See Also: 
inspection.  Packers.  program.  

Partnerships for high-value agricultural product quality research
The Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Sec. 402) authorized the USDA to make matching grants to eligible partnerships of land grant colleges or universities and other academic or research institutions for high-value agricultural product research and extension activities in order to enhance U.S. commodity competitiveness and increase exports. The program was reauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 7123).

See Also: 
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.  authorized.  commodity.  eligible.  extension.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  program.  

Parturition
See Calve(d).

See Also: 
Calve(d).  

Pasteurization; pasteurizing; pasteurized
The process of destroying microorganisms in food that can cause disease through the application of heat or through irradiation. Under high-temperature, short-time pasteurization, milk is heated to 160? to 175? F for 15 to 25 seconds to destroy pathogenic and other undesirable microorganisms that may be found in milk. Ultra-high-temperature pasteurization occurs at 275? to 280? F for about two seconds. See Cold pasteurization, Flash pasteurization, Steam pasteurization, Ultra-high temperature (UHT), and Ultrapasteurized; ultrapasteurization.

See Also: 
Flash pasteurization.  high-temperature, short-time.  irradiation.  microorganisms.  pasteurization.  process.  Steam pasteurization.  Ultra-high temperature (UHT).  Ultrapasteurized; ultrapasteurization.  undesirable microorganisms.  

Pasture Flood Compensation program
See 1998 Flood Compensation Program (FCP), and 2000 Flood Compensation Program (FCP).

See Also: 
1998 Flood Compensation Program (FCP).  2000 Flood Compensation Program (FCP).  

Pasture Recovery Program (PRP)
Authorized by the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000, and the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001.The program provided assistance to owners and operators of pastureland, on which livestock was normally grazed, that was damaged or destroyed by drought during calendar years 1999 and 2000. To qualify for assistance, owners and operators had to reestablish the vegetative cover forage crop. The PRP was only available to producers in counties that were approved for both the Livestock Assistance Program and the Emergency Conservation Programfor drought emergency measures for 1999 damage, and the ECP only for 2000 damage.

See Also: 
Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000.  Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001.  Authorized.  Emergency Conservation Program.  forage.  livestock.  Livestock Assistance Program.  pastureland.  program.  vegetative cover.  

Pasture and hutch (production system)
The use of reduced confinement and the increased use of outdoor shelters and pastures as components of an alternative livestock production system that allows for the lowering or elimination of subtherapeutic feeding of antibiotics. Generally used by smaller operations, some confined livestock operations may utilize pasturing to some extent during moderate weather. A pasture and hutch system allows for pasture rotation, continuous grazing or rooting, and the periodic changing of hutch surfaces. Hutches can be modified or moved to adjust for changes in temperature, sunlight, predominating winds, and direction of inclement weather.

See Also: 
continuous grazing.  livestock.  pasture.  rotation.  subtherapeutic.  

Pasture management
The cultural treatment, in the form of fertilization,weed control, reseeding, or renovation, that is usually a part of a pasture management strategy in addition to grazing management.

See Also: 
cultural.  grazing management.  pasture management.  weed.  

Pasture rotation
The rotation of animals from one pasture to another so that some pasture areas have no livestock grazing on them during certain periods of time.

See Also: 
grazing.  livestock.  pasture.  rotation.  

Pasture(d) poultry
A sustainable agricultural practice of raising poultry on grass, often in conjunction with other types of agricultural production. The poultry provide insect control, returnfertilizer to the land, and provide compost materials from brooder house bedding and offal derived from the slaughtering process. Pasture poultry production also typically includes on-farm slaughter andprocessing using mobile systems. See Free range.

See Also: 
brooder house.  compost.  farm.  fertilizer.  Free range.  offal.  poultry.  process.  processing.  sustainable.  

Pasture; pastureland; pasture land
(1) Land used primarily for the production of adapted, introduced, or native species in a pure stand, grass mixture, or a grass-legume mixture. (2) The fenced area of domesticated forages, usually improved, on which animals aregrazed. (3) To graze. (4) Cropland used only for pasture or grazing, woodland pastured, and other pastureland and rangeland.

See Also: 
Cropland.  graze.  grazing.  legume.  rangeland.  species.  woodland.  

Pastureland
See Pasture; pastureland; pasture land.

See Also: 
Pasture; pastureland; pasture land.  

Pathogen(s); pathogenic
Disease-producing organisms.

Pathologist
One who studies disease organisms. See Pathogen(s).

See Also: 
Pathogen(s).  

Patronage
The measure of a patron's business with a cooperative.

See Also: 
cooperative.  

Patronage dividend(s)
Profit (margin) income of a cooperative that is distributed to its members. See Patronage refund(s).

See Also: 
cooperative.  margin.  Patronage refund(s).  

Patronage refund(s)
Cooperatives typically charge market prices for supplies and services furnished to members and competitive prices for products delivered for further processing and marketing in order to generate sufficient income to cover costs and meet continuing needs for operating capital. At the close of the fiscal year, a cooperative computes its earnings on business conducted on a cooperative basis, and may return some of these earnings to the patrons (as cash or equity allocations)on the basis of how much business each patron did with the cooperative during the year. These distributions are called patronage refunds. See Patronage dividend(s).

See Also: 
cooperative.  fiscal year.  further processing.  marketing.  Patronage dividend(s).  

Patrons of Husbandry
See National Grange.

See Also: 
National Grange.  

Pay weight
The weight of useable product delivered to the processing plant and paid for at the rates specified by contract.

See Also: 
contract.  processing.  

Payment acres (acreage)
(1) Under former programs, the number of acres within the crop acreage base eligible for deficiency payments; usually the crop acreage base less theacreage reduction program acres and the normal flex acres. (2) The number of eligible acres on eligible farms to be used for calculations of program payments. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1101(f) and 1301), 85 percent of the base acres for a covered commodity and peanuts. See Eligible oilseed acreage, Maximum payment acres, Payment rate,and Permitted acres (acreage).

See Also: 
acreage reduction program.  base acres.  covered commodity.  crop acreage base.  eligible.  Eligible oilseed acreage.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  farms.  Maximum payment acres.  normal flex acres.  Payment rate.  payments.  Permitted acres (acreage).  program.  

Payment cap(s)
Under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, per person limits placed on gains realized from marketing loans and loan deficiency paymentsof $75,000 per year. This cap was against all crops, not each one. Provisions of the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000, and Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001, doubled the per person cap on gains on crop marketing loans and loan deficiency payments to $150,000 per person; $300,000 for up to three entities. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, the per person cap is $75,000 for loan deficiency payments and marketing loan gains, including an additional $75,000 cap for peanuts, honey, wool, and mohair. See Payment limitation(s).

See Also: 
Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2000.  Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  mohair.  Payment limitation(s).  person.  wool.  

Payment formula
See Payment rate.

See Also: 
Payment rate.  

Payment in Lieu of Taxes
A program administered by the Bureau of Land Management that recompenses local governments for the property tax dollars they would have received from private landowners if all federal lands were liquidated.

See Also: 
Bureau of Land Management.  program.  

Payment limitation(s); payment limit(s)
A limit set by law on the amount of money any one individual producer may receive in farm program payments, such as deficiency and disaster payments, in any one year under the commodity programs. Under the Agricultural and Consumer Protection Act of 1973, the limit on government payments to wheat, feed grains, and upland cotton producers was $20,000 and to rice producers, $55,000. Under the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977, the limit on government payments to wheat, feed grains, and upland cotton producers was $40,000 for the 1978 crop and $45,000 for the 1979 crop. Under the Food Security Act of 1985, the limits were $50,000 on deficiency payments, paid land diversion payments, and Conservation Reserve Program payments; $250,000 on Findley payments, loan deficiency payments, gains on marketing loan repayments, and disaster payments; $250,000 on gains from honey marketing loan repayments; and $500,000 maximum to any one person for all payments. Under the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, the limits were $75,000 on Findley payments, LDPs, gains on marketing loan repayments, and disaster payments; and $250,000 maximum to any one person for all payments. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 115) reduced the payment limitation to $40,000 per person and to $80,000 on the three-entity rule. The limit on marketing loan gains (or the sum of marketing loan gainsandLDPs) was maintained at $75,000 ($150,000 for the 1999 and 2000 crop years). Other limitations were $10,000 for Environmental Quality Incentives Program payments, $50,000 for CRP rental payments, and $100,000 for Noninsured (crop disaster) Assistance Program payments. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1603) further reduced payment limits to $40,000 on direct payments; $65,000 on counter-cyclical payments; $75,000 for LDPs and marketing loan gains on loan commodities; and an additional $75,000 limit on peanuts, honey, wool, and mohair. Peanuts have a separate payment limit from loan commoditiesin for direct payments and countercyclical payments. In addition, there is a $50,000 limit for CRP; $100,000 for NAP; $450,000 for EQIP (applied on a direct attribution basis); $50,000 on Agricultural Management Assistance program payments; and $20,000 on Tier I, $35,000 on Tier II, and $45,000 on Tier III Conservation Security Program payments. Also Payment cap(s). See Actively engaged in farming, Adjusted gross income limit; adjusted gross income cap, Husband and wife rule,Permitted entities, Separate Person(s), Significant contribution, and Three-entity rule.

See Also: 
Actively engaged in farming.  commodity.  Conservation Reserve Program.  Conservation Security Program.  deficiency.  direct attribution.  disaster payments.  Environmental Quality Incentives Program.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  feed grains.  Food and Agriculture Act of 1977.  Food Security Act of 1985.  Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990.  Husband and wife rule.  marketing loan.  mohair.  Noninsured (crop disaster) Assistance Program.  Payment cap(s).  payments.  Permitted entities.  person.  Person(s).  producer.  program.  Separate.  Significant contribution.  three-entity rule.  Tier I.  Tier II.  Tier III.  upland cotton.  wool.  

Payment quantity
(1) The total eligible quantity of a program commodity to be multiplied by the payment rate. (2) For production flexibility contractsas authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, the payment quantity for a given contract commodity was equal to 85 percent of the contract acreage times the program yield for that commodity. (3) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 10105), for market loss assistance for apple producers, the lesser of the quantity of apples produced on a farm in 2000 or 5 million pounds of apples. (4) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1502), for national dairy market loss payments, the lesser of the quantity of milk produced by a single dairy operation for an applicable month or 2.4 million pounds. (5) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1206), for payments in lieu of loan deficiency payments for grazed acreage of wheat, barley, oats, and triticale, the quantity of grazed acreage on the farm times the payment yield used for calculating direct payments.

See Also: 
authorized.  barley.  commodity.  contract acreage.  contract commodity.  eligible.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  national dairy market loss payments.  payment rate.  payment yield.  payments in lieu of.  program.  program yield.  triticale.  

Payment rate
(1) Under programs designed to reimburse producers for income or production losses, rates calculated based on previous multiple-year average prices (throwing out high and low years) or per unit formulas, and often adjusted to bring the actual payment rate within authorized spending levels. (2) Under the production flexibility contracts,as authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, the rate determined annually for each contract commodity by dividing the total annual level of funding available for each commodity (after adjustments) by the total of all production under contract. The annual payment rate for each contract commodity was the above figure multiplied by a farm's payment quantity. The sum of all such payments per farm was subject to a payment limitation. (3) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1103),the fixed rates used to calculate direct payments on covered commodities for a crop year.

See Also: 
authorized.  commodity.  contract.  contract commodity.  crop year.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  payment limitation.  payment quantity.  

Payment yield
(1) An applicable average yield based on actual, county, or national total production per crop and divided by units of production. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec.1102 and 1302),for the 2002 through 2007 crops of a covered commodity and peanuts, the yield established for a farm used in calculating direct payments and counter-cyclical payments. See Assigned yield(s),Farm program payment yield, Payment yield (peanuts), and Update; updating. (2) For crop insurance purposes, the yield determined by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation based upon National Agricultural Statistics Service yields for each insurable crop type and practice, as adjusted by the FCIC, and used to determine whether an indemnity is due.

See Also: 
Assigned yield(s).  covered commodity.  crop insurance.  farm.  Farm program payment yield.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.  indemnity.  National Agricultural Statistics Service.  Update; updating.  

Payment-in-kind (PIK)
(1) A payment made to eligible producers in the form of an equivalent amount of commodities owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation. Payments-in-kind were first used in the 1930s to reduce government-held surpluses of upland cotton. A PIK program in 1983 offered surplus agricultural commodities owned by the government in exchange for agreements to reduce production by cutting crop acreage. (2) A program that has provided payment to producers, in the form of commodities, for reducing acreage of certain crops and placing thatacreage in soil conserving uses. The term may also apply to the Export Enhancement Program or other programs in which payments are made in the form of commodities. See Generic commodity certificates,In-kind payments, and Negotiable marketing certificates.

See Also: 
acreage.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  eligible.  Export Enhancement Program.  In-kind payments.  program.  soil.  surplus.  upland cotton.  

Payments in lieu of loan deficiency payments
Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1206), a producerwho would otherwise be eligible for a loan deficiency payment for wheat, barley, oats, or triticale but who elects to use acreage planted to these commodities for the grazing of livestock can receive a loan deficiency payment if the producer enters into an agreement to forgo any other harvesting of the wheat, barley, oats, or triticale on that acreage. The payment quantity is determined by multiplying the acreage grazed times the payment yield for direct payments for that covered commodity on the farm.

See Also: 
acreage.  barley.  covered commodity.  eligible.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  grazing.  livestock.  loan deficiency payment.  payment quantity.  payment yield.  producer.  triticale.  

Payments to 1890 Colleges and Tuskegee University
Under the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977, the programs that provide for (a) the support of continuing agricultural research and (b) Extensioneducational activities at the 1890 land grantsand Tuskegee University. The research component concentrates on small farms, sustainable agriculture, rural economic development, human nutrition, and rural youth and elderly research to meet the mandate of assisting rural, underprivileged persons and small producers improve their standards of living. The Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002 (Sec. 753), made West Virginia State College eligible to receive funds under this program.

See Also: 
Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2002.  eligible.  Extension.  National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977.  program.  rural.  small farms.  sustainable agriculture.  

Payments to Counties for National Grasslands (7 U.S.C. ? 1012)
Provides 25 percent of net (rather than gross) receipts (sale, lease, rental, or other fees) for roads and schools directly to the counties where the national grasslands are located. See Forest Service Payments to States.

See Also: 
Forest Service Payments to States.  

Payments to States and Possessions
An account under Title I, Agricultural Programs, of agricultural appropriations. SeeFederal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP).

See Also: 
agricultural appropriations.  Agricultural Programs.  Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP).  

Peace Clause
The Agreement on Agriculture contains a "due restraint" or "peace clause" (Article 13) that regulates the application to other World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements on subsidies in respect to agricultural products. The article provides that green box domestic support measures cannot be the subject of countervailing duty action or other subsidy action under the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, nor can they be subject to actions based on nullification or impairment of tariff concessions under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

See Also: 
Agreement on Agriculture.  countervailing duty.  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.  green box.  subsidy.  World Trade Organization (WTO).  WTO.  

Peanut (price-support) program
As authorized by the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, the peanut production control and price-support programoperated with a two-tier pricing system: a quota price-support level for domestic edible use, and an additionals price-support levelfor all other peanut production (crush and export). Production was controlled through the use of a national poundage quota equal to domestic edible use. Price-support loans were available to producer marketing associations through the Commodity Credit Corporation. The price-support level (quota loan rate) for quota peanuts through 2002 was $610 per ton. For additional peanuts, the price-support level was mandated to be at a level that ensured no losses to the CCC. The peanut price-support program provided loans to eligible producers through marketing associations under cooperative agreements with the CCC. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Secs. 1301-1310), the peanut program was converted to a system of direct payments, counter-cyclical payments, and nonrecourse loans with marketing loan provisions that are more similar to the programs for covered commodities. The marketing quota was eliminated and compensation for loss of quota asset value was authorized. As with other crops that are eligible for marketing loans and loan deficiency payments, peanut producers may receive loans by pledging production as collateral. Producers with or without a history of peanut production are eligible. The peanut loan rate is fixed at $355 per ton. Producers can pledge their stored peanuts for up to nine months and then repay the loan at a rate that is the lesser of (a) $355 per ton plus interest or (b) a lower, USDA-determined repayment rate designed to minimize commodity forfeiture, government-owned stocks, and storage costs and to allow peanuts to be marketed freely and competitively, both domestically and internationally. See Marketing associations (peanuts).

See Also: 
authorized.  CCC.  commodity.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  compensation for loss of quota asset value.  crush.  eligible.  export.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  loan.  loan rate.  marketing.  Marketing associations (peanuts).  marketing loan.  marketing quota.  national poundage quota.  price-support level.  price-support program.  producer.  production control.  quota peanuts.  stocks.  two-tier.  

Peanut Standards Board
The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1308 (c)) requires the establishment of an eighteen-member board to advise the USDA on quality and handling standards for domestically produced and imported peanuts. New members of the Board were appointed in December 2002.

See Also: 
handling.  

Peanut commodity card
Cards provided by the Farm Service Agency to each peanut producer for the purpose of administering the peanut price-support program. These cards are no longer used. See Smart cards (peanuts).

See Also: 
Farm Service Agency.  producer.  Smart cards (peanuts).  

Peanut marketing assessment(s)
Under the formerpeanut program, a budget-deficit marketing assessment, applying only to the marketing of domestically produced peanuts, was collected from producers and first purchasers. Imports were not subject to this levy. The assessment rate for the 1997-2002 crops was 1.2 percent of the quota loan rate or additionals loan rate, whichever applied. Assessments received from the 1996 through 1998 crop years were applied against peanut program losses. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 eliminated the peanut marketing assessment. See Assessment(s) (programs).

See Also: 
assessment.  Assessment(s).  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  levy.  marketing.  marketing assessment.  

Peanut marketing associations
See Marketing associations (peanuts).

See Also: 
Marketing associations (peanuts).  

Peanut meal
Obtained by grinding shelled peanuts and removing the oil either mechanically or by solvent extraction. Solvent-extracted peanut meal contains 48 percent protein and the mechanically extracted product contains 45 percent protein.

See Also: 
protein.  

Peanut poundage quota
See Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts).

See Also: 
Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts).  

Peanut quota
See Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts).

See Also: 
Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts).  

Peanut sheller
See Sheller(s) (peanuts).

See Also: 
Sheller(s) (peanuts).  

Pedology
The study of soils.

Peer review(ed)
The evaluation by experts in the field of (a) a proposed scientific research project, or (b) a paper submitted for publication in the trade journal for a given profession or discipline. See Peer reviewer(s).

See Also: 
Peer reviewer(s).  

Peer reviewer(s)
Experts or consultants qualified by training and experience to give expert advice on the scientific and technical merit of grant applications or the relevance of those applications to one or more of the application evaluation criteria. Peer reviewers may be ad hoc or convened as a panel. See Peer review(ed).

See Also: 
grant.  Peer review(ed).  

Pellet mill
See Pelleting (steam).

See Also: 
Pelleting (steam).  

Pelleting (steam)
Steam-pelleted feeds manufactured by using moisture, heat, and pressure to form ground feed ingredients into larger homogenous feed particles. Steam is added to the ground feed ingredients to increase the moisture level to 15 to 18 percent and temperature to 160? to 185?F. Steam helps to gelatinize starches, which bind the feed particles together. The hot "mash" is then forced through a pellet die in a pellet mill. The pellets exit the die at about 10 percent moisture.

See Also: 
feed.  feeds.  pellet mill.  

Pencil shrink(age)
(1) A percentage adjustment inlivestock live weight that is subtracted to insure that responsibility for weight loss during transport is shared by buyer and seller. (2) The adjustment of the price for high-moisture grain by using a formula that allows the buyer to calculate what the bushel weight would remain if the grain was dried, without actually drying the grain.

See Also: 
bushel.  grain.  livestock.  

Penetrative stunning device(s)
A penetrative captive bolt stun guns used for slaughter that uses a steel bolt powered by either compressed air or blank cartridges. The bolt is driven into the animal's brain rendering it unconscious prior to being bled during the slaughter process.

See Also: 
process.  

Per-acre yield goal (sugar)
The production goal peracre of sugarcane at a level that is not less than the average per-acre yield for the two highest years from among the 1999, 2000, and 2001 crop years. The goal will ensure an adequate net return per pound to producers, taking into consideration any available production research data, and adjusted by the average recovery rate of sugar produced from sugarcane byprocessors.

See Also: 
acre.  

Percent calf crop
The percentage of calves produced within a herd in a given year relative to the number of cows and heifers exposed to breeding.

See Also: 
breeding.  

Percentage share lease
A flexible lease in which the owner receives a cash rent equal to a specified share of the gross value of the crop (yield times price). If the owner pays part of the production costs, the share could be 50 percent, similar to a standard crop-share lease. If the owner pays no production costs, the share will be smaller. See Adjustment for price and yield lease, Adjustment for price only lease, Adjustment for yield only lease, and Base rent plus bonus lease.

See Also: 
Adjustment for price and yield lease.  Adjustment for price only lease.  Adjustment for yield only lease.  Base rent plus bonus lease.  cash rent.  crop-share lease.  flexible lease.  

Percolation
The downward movement of water through soil under the influence of gravity.

See Also: 
soil.  

Perennial stream
A stream or river that usually has water flow during normal weather conditions.

Perennial(s) (crop)
An agricultural or horticultural commodity that is produced from the same root structure for two or more years.

See Also: 
commodity.  

Performance-Based Inspection System (PBIS)
Automated scheduling and management system for processing plant inspection tasks, based on plant characteristics and inspection findings. PBIS is intended to makeprocessing inspection more uniform nationwide, and provides the Food Safety and Inspection Service with its first easily accessible database on plant performance. The computer-driven system is a sophisticated inspection tool based on public health risk assessment principles. The system eliminates inspector subjectivity and allows for efficient utilization of manpower. It enables the FSIS to capture, store, and sort the vast quantities of information generated by the 13 million inspection tasks performed in processing establishments each year. These data allow the FSISto examine the long-term operation of a particular plant or the performance of a particular control point nationwide.

See Also: 
Food Safety and Inspection Service.  inspection.  processing.  risk assessment.  

Peril point
A hypothetical limit beyond which a reduction in tariff protection would cause serious injury to a domestic industry.

See Also: 
tariff.  

Perique
A type of tobacco, grown only in Louisiana, that uses a unique process of packing the dried leaves in casks under great pressure for approximately nine months.

See Also: 
process.  tobacco.  

Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, 1930 (PACA) (7 U.S.C. ?? 499a-499t)
Signed into law June 10, 1930. Administered by the Agricultural Marketing Service, the PACA establishes a code of trading ethics and encourages fair trading in the marketing of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables. It prohibits unfair and fraudulent business practices and provides a forum to resolve contract disputes. Injured parties can collect damages from any buyer or seller who fails to live up to contract obligations. The law protects sellers of produce by imposing a trust on a buyer's inventory and receivables, which gives the seller a security interest in the product until payment is received. See Amendments to the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, 1930 (PACA).

See Also: 
Agricultural Marketing Service.  Amendments to the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, 1930 (PACA).  contract.  marketing.  security interest.  

Perishable agricultural commodity(ies)
Under the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, 1930, fresh fruits and vegetables of every kind and character, whether or not frozen or packed in ice, including cherries in brine.

See Also: 
Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act, 1930.  

Perishable manufactured dairy products
Manufactured dairy products with limited storage life, including ice cream, cottage cheese, yogurt, and sour cream.

Permaculture
A contraction of "permanent agriculture." It is an alternative agriculture system described as sustainable and unique in its emphasis on design; the location of each element in a landscape and the evolution of the landscape over time. The goal of permaculture is to produce an efficient, low-maintenance integration of plants, animals, people, and structure to be applied at the scale of a home garden all the way through to a large farm.

See Also: 
alternative agriculture.  farm.  sustainable.  

Permanent capital
In the Farm Credit System, the total capital of an association including member stock and retained earnings.

See Also: 
Farm Credit System.  

Permanent capital ratio
Of a credit institution, the permanent capital divided by the average daily balance of the institution's risk-adjusted asset base. It is a measure of an institution's capital strength.

See Also: 
asset.  average daily balance.  permanent capital.  

Permanent legislation; permanent law
The laws on which many agricultural programs are based that are in force in the absence of all temporary amendments and temporarily suspended provisions. The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 and the Agricultural Act of 1949 serve as the principal laws authorizing the major commodity programs. These laws are frequently amended; provisions are added, suspended, or repealed. For the past several decades, periodic omnibus agriculture acts have provided for specific, fixed-period commodity programs by adding temporary amendments to these laws and suspending conflicting provisions of those laws for the same period. The temporarily suspended provisions of the 1938 and 1949 Acts go back into effect if current amendments lapse and new legislation is not enacted. An attempt was made to eliminate the permanent legislation during the debate on the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, but the effort was rebuffed. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 171) suspended permanent price-support authority through 2002. Permanent price-support authority was suspended through 2007 by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1602).

See Also: 
Agricultural Act of 1949.  Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938.  agricultural programs.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  price-support.  

Permanent pasture
A pasture, containing perennial plants, that has been grazed for multiple years.

See Also: 
pasture.  perennial.  

Permanent vegetative cover
(1) Under the Conservation Reserve Program, perennial stands of approved combinations of certain grasses, legumes, forbs, shrubs with a life span of ten or more years, or trees. (2) Used to prevent excessive runoff of water or soil loss to water pollution.

See Also: 
Conservation Reserve Program.  forbs.  runoff.  soil.  

Permeability
The ease with which air or plant roots penetrate into or pass through a specific horizon.

See Also: 
horizon.  plant.  

Permeate
The portion of the processing stream that permeates or crosses the membrane during ultrafiltration. This stream contains compounds that are small enough to go through the pores of the membrane. See Retentate.

See Also: 
processing.  Retentate.  

Permissive inspection (grain)
See Grain inspection.

See Also: 
Grain inspection.  

Permit nutrient plan (PNP)
A proposed site-specific plan that describes how a producer intends to meet the effluent discharge limitations and other requirements of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Under final rules adopted by theEnvironmental Protection Agency in December 2002, a permit nutrient plan was not adopted as part of the required permitting procedure. Instead, the EPA required that a nutrient management plan be developed and available upon request by permitting authorities.

See Also: 
discharge.  effluent.  Environmental Protection Agency.  National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.  nutrient.  nutrient management plan.  producer.  

Permitted acres (acreage)
Under former programs, the acreage of a program crop or permitted cropthat a participating producer was eligible to plant, after reducing acreage by the percentage required in that year. The permitted acreage was usually the crop acreage base less any land idled by the acreage reduction program, normal flex acreage, and paid land diversion programs. See Payment acres (acreage) and Maximum payment acres.

See Also: 
acreage.  crop acreage base.  eligible.  Maximum payment acres.  paid land diversion.  Payment acres (acreage).  permitted crop.  producer.  program crop.  

Permitted crop(s)
(1) Under the Food Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, any program crop, oilseeds, and any experimental or industrial crop designated by the USDA to be grown on flexible acres. Crops not permitted were fruit and vegetable crops (including potatoes and dry edible beans), unless the USDA designated them as experimental or industrial crops or declared that no substantial domestic production or market existed. Also excluded were peanuts, tobacco, wild rice, trees, and nuts. (2) Under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, any commodity, except fruits and vegetables, could be grown on contract acreage. Dry peas, lentils, and mung beanscould be planted. Producers who historically double-croppedfruits and vegetables could continue to do so without a loss of payments. Producers who had a history of growing fruits and vegetables could plant on contract acres with a corresponding acre-for-acre loss of contract payments. (3) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1106), all crops to be planted on base acres except fruits and vegetables (unless destroyed before harvest, but in no event, any fruit or vegetable that grows on trees or on perennial plants) or wild rice. Exceptions to the vegetable prohibition are lentils, mung beans, and dry peas. Other exceptions are production (a) in any region in which there is a history of double-cropping of covered commodities with prohibited agricultural commodities, and (b) on a farm that has a history of planting otherwise-prohibited agricultural commodities on base acres, except that direct payments and counter-cyclical payments are reduced by anacre for each acre planted to such an agricultural commodity. See Flexibility.

See Also: 
acre.  agricultural commodity.  base acres.  commodity.  dry peas.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  Flexibility.  industrial crop.  lentils.  market.  mung beans.  oilseeds.  perennial.  program crop.  tobacco.  wild rice.  

Permitted entities
Under payment limitation provisions, no individual may receive payments for more than three entities in which the individual holds substantial beneficial interest. If the individual receives payments as an individual, then he/she may not also receive payments from more than two entities that receive payments as a separate person. For example, if an individual has a farming interest and also owns stock in more than two farming corporations, the individual must select just two of those corporations through which he/she may indirectly receive payments. If the individual does not have an individual farming interest, then he/she may select three farming corporations from which to receive indirect payments. Any individual that owns 10 percent or more of a farming entity that is receiving payments is subject to the rule.

See Also: 
beneficial interest.  entity.  payment limitation.  separate person.  stock.  substantial.  

Persistent bioaccumulative and toxic (chemicals) (PBT)
Chemical pollutants that are toxic, persist in the environment, accumulate in food chains, and pose risks to human health and ecosystems.

Persistent pesticides
Pesticides that do not break down chemically, or break down very slowly, and remain in the environment after a growing season.

See Also: 
growing season.  

Person(s)
Under 7 U.S.C. ? 1308(e)(2)(A), an individual (including any individual participating in a farming operation as a partner in a general partnership), a participant in a joint venture, a grantor of a revocable trust, a corporation, joint stock company, association, limited partnership, charitable organization, irrevocable trusts and estates, state, state political subdivision, or state agency. Partnerships and joint ventures may not be persons. Sometimes "person" is used interchangeably with separate person. A separate person is a "person" who has satisfied certain requirements for economic "separateness and distinctness." A separate person who is actively engaged in farming is eligible to receive payments up to the applicable limit. See Separate person(s), Separately eligible, and Status date.

See Also: 
actively engaged in farming.  eligible.  separate person.  Separate person(s).  Separately eligible.  Status date.  

Pervasive poverty
Under the Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program eligibility requirements, conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated area. The degree of poverty shall be demonstrated by citing available statistics on low-income population, levels of public assistance, numbers of persons or families in poverty, or similar data. See Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).

See Also: 
Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community program (EZ/EC).  

Pest Management Center(s) (PMC)
Authorized by the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Sec. 406) and administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. Four regional centers were created as part of a nationwide pest management information network designed to respond quickly to information needs in both the public and private sectors. PMCs also aid the USDA and its partner institutions identify, prioritize, and coordinate national pest management research, education, and extension activities and programs.

See Also: 
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.  Authorized.  Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.  extension activities.  pest management.  

Pest Management program
Smith-Lever 3(d) program with two components: integrated pest management (IPM), and cotton pest management. The IPM component addresses the efficient control of pests on crops and livestock and in urban situations. The cotton pest management component focuses on cotton insects in 11 states. Funds are distributed on the basis of a formula using boll weevil losses and pesticide sales in each state. See Smith-Lever 3(d) (funds).

See Also: 
boll weevil.  cotton.  integrated pest management (IPM).  livestock.  pest management.  pesticide.  program.  Smith-Lever 3(d).  Smith-Lever 3(d) (funds).  urban.  

Pest control
See Pest management.

See Also: 
Pest management.  

Pest management
The managing of agricultural pest infestations (including weeds, insects, and diseases) to reduce adverse effects on plant growth, crop production, and environmental resources.

See Also: 
crop production.  pest.  plant.  resources.  

Pest(s)
(1) An insect, rodent, nematode, fungus, weed, or other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life that is injurious to agricultural production, health, or the environment. (2) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 10403(13)), a protozoan, plant, bacteria, fungus, virus, viroid, infectious agent, arthropod, parasite, vector, or any allied organism that can directly or indirectly injure, cause damage to, or cause disease in livestock.

See Also: 
Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  livestock.  nematode.  plant.  vector.  weed.  

Pesticide Data Program (PDP)
An Agricultural Marketing Service program to collect data on pesticide residues in food. PDP data on pesticides in selected commodities are used by theEnvironmental Protection Agencyto support its dietary risk assessment process and pesticide registration process, by the Food and Drug Administrationto refine sampling for enforcement of tolerances, by the Foreign Agricultural Service to support export of U.S. commodities in a competitive global market, by the Economic Research Service to evaluate pesticide alternatives, and by the public sector to address food safety issues.

See Also: 
Agricultural Marketing Service.  Economic Research Service.  Environmental Protection Agency.  export.  Food and Drug Administration.  Foreign Agricultural Service.  market.  pesticide.  program.  risk assessment.  

Pesticide Impact Assessment (PIA)
See Regional Pest Management Centers.

See Also: 
Regional Pest Management Centers.  

Pesticide Recordkeeping Program
See Federal Pesticide Recordkeeping Program.

See Also: 
Federal Pesticide Recordkeeping Program.  

Pesticide chemical
Under the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, any substance that is a pesticide under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, including all active ingredients and inert ingredients.

See Also: 
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.  inert.  ingredients.  pesticide.  

Pesticide clearance
The interregional research project No. 4 (IR-4) was established in 1963 to assist producers of minor crops in obtaining registrations for pesticides needed to successfully grow food and ornamental commodities. SeeMinor-use drugs.

See Also: 
interregional research project No. 4 (IR-4).  minor crops.  registration.  

Pesticide degradate(s)
Breakdown products of pesticide active ingredients resulting from biological processes (metabolites) and chemical processes (e.g., hydrolysis, photolysis, or photooxidation). Also Transformation product(s), Breakdown product(s), and Daughter product(s).

See Also: 
Breakdown product(s).  Daughter product(s).  metabolites.  Transformation product(s).  

Pesticide drift
The physical movement of a pesticide through the air, at the time of pesticide application or soon thereafter, from the target site to any non- or off-target site. Pesticide drift does not include movement of pesticides to non- or off-target sites caused by erosion, migration, volatility, or windblown soil particles that occurs after application, unless specifically addressed on the pesticide product label with respect to drift control requirements. Two types of drift cause chemicals to move off target: particle drift and vapor drift. Particle drift occurs when the wind scatters spray droplets off the application site onto neighboring shrubs, flowers, or lawns. Factors that encourage particles to drift include particle size, spray nozzle size and configuration, spray pressure, wind speed, and type of application equipment used. Vapor drift occurs when chemicals evaporate and move with air currents to other sites.

See Also: 
drift.  erosion.  Particle drift.  pesticide.  Pesticide drift.  soil.  Vapor drift.  

Pesticide recordkeeping
Certified applicatorsof restricted-use pesticides are required to maintain records comparable to records maintained by commercial applicators of pesticides in each state, even if the state does not require the maintenance of records.

See Also: 
restricted-use.  

Pesticide residue(s)
(1) A detectable level of a chemical residue found on a food product. (2) Under the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, the residue of a pesticide chemical, its metabolites, anddegradates in or on raw or processed foods.

See Also: 
chemical.  Food Quality Protection Act of 1996.  metabolites.  pesticide.  processed.  residue.  

Pesticide resistance
See Resistance (pesticides).

See Also: 
Resistance (pesticides).  

Pesticide tolerance level(s)
A scientifically acceptable level of pesticide residue that can exist on a fruit or vegetable product. It usually is expressed in parts per million or billion. See Tolerance(s).

See Also: 
pesticide residue.  Tolerance(s).  

Pesticide(s)
Chemicals used by producers to control pests (such as weeds ?herbicides; insects ?insecticides; plant diseases ?fungicides; ornematodes ?nematicides; to regulate plant growth or to simplify harvest ?desiccants.

See Also: 
desiccants.  nematicides.  plant.  

Pfiesteria (piscicida)
A microscopic organism (dinoflagellate) that sometimes behaves like a plant and sometimes like an animal. It has many life stages, and in some forms is toxic and can kill fish. In humans, it has reportedly caused burning skin and respiratory irritation, followed by problems with concentration.

See Also: 
dinoflagellate.  plant.  

Phage typing
A classification procedure that uses bacteriophages to distinguish between bacterial isolates that belong to the same genus and species. Each bacterial strain will exhibit resistance to some phages and be susceptible to infection by others. A battery of standard phages is used to test bacterial isolates. The profile of resistance and susceptibility is called the phage type.

See Also: 
phage.  species.  

Phage(s)
See Bacteriophage(s).

See Also: 
Bacteriophage(s).  

Phase
A subdivision of the soil series, or higher unit of soil classification, based on characteristics that affect use and management of the soil, but which do not vary sufficiently to differentiate it as a separate series.

See Also: 
classification.  series.  soil.  soil series.  

Phase I (tobacco)
See Tobacco settlement.

See Also: 
Tobacco settlement.  

Phase II (tobacco)
The Master Settlement Agreement called for participating manufacturers to address the negative impact that the MSA would have on tobacco growers and quota holders. This resulted in Phase II of the tobacco settlement which is a $5.15 billion fund divided among states that produce cigarette tobaccos. Also National Tobacco Growers' Settlement Trust.

See Also: 
Master Settlement Agreement.  National Tobacco Growers' Settlement Trust.  tobacco settlement.  

Phenology
The science that deals with the time of appearance of characteristic periodic phenomena in the life cycle of organisms in nature (e.g., migration in birds, flowering and leaf-fall in plants), particularly as these phenomena are influenced by locality factors.

Phenotype(s)
The visible or measurable expression of a character; for example, weaning weight, postweaning gain, or reproduction. Phenotype is influenced by genetics and environment.

See Also: 
gain.  

Phenotypic correlations
The correlations between two traits caused by environmental and genetic factors influencing both traits.

Phenoxy-type herbicides
See Chlorophenoxy herbicides.

See Also: 
Chlorophenoxy herbicides.  

Pheromone(s)
Biochemicals used to disrupt the mating behavior of insects.

Pheromone(s) trap
A trap that utilizes either a natural, or more typically, synthetic insect sex attractant pheromone that is usually species specific.

See Also: 
attractant.  pheromone.  species.  

Phosphorus (P)
See Macronutrient(s).

See Also: 
Macronutrient(s).  

Phylloxera
Insects (which include the grape phylloxera of American origin) that are a worldwide scourge of grape plants.

Physiologist
One who studies the chemistry and actions (metabolic and reproductive functions) of the body.

Phytochemical(s)
Substances found in edible fruits and vegetables that exhibit a potential for modulating the human metabolism in a manner favorable to reducing the risk of cancer.

Phytoestrogens
Natural constituents of the diet, produced by plants, that have been shown to have beneficial health effects.

Phytopathogenic
Organisms that can cause diseases in plants.

Phytosanitary
A commodity free of pests and disease.

See Also: 
commodity.  pests.  

Phytosanitary certificate
A document issued by a government to an exporter that certifies that the commodity is free from pests and disease, in accordance with the importing country's standards.

See Also: 
commodity.  pests.  

Phytosanitary measure
Any legislation, regulation, or official procedure for the purpose of preventing the introduction or spread of pests.

See Also: 
introduction.  

Phytosanitary procedure
Any officially prescribed method for performing inspections, tests, surveys, or treatments in connection with regulatedpests.

See Also: 
pests.  

Phytosanitary regulation
Rules designed to prevent the introduction or spread of pests by regulating the production, movement, or existence of commodities or other articles or the normal activity of persons.

See Also: 
introduction.  

Phytotoxic
Toxic to plants.

Pick(ed)(ing)
The process of harvesting a cotton crop by a mechanical spindle picker. The first harvest is known as the first pick. Under this harvesting method, a second pick (scrapping) is made at a later date to harvest late-opening bolls. First-pick cotton normally has fiber quality superior to second pick. The percentage of the first pick compared to the total is an indication of crop maturity. See Ground cotton,andPicker; picker system; picker harvester (cotton).

See Also: 
cotton.  fiber.  first pick.  picker.  Picker; picker system; picker harvester.  quality.  second pick.  

Picker (wool)
Equipment that opens the wool fiber and removes vegetable matter and other foreign material.

See Also: 
foreign material.  vegetable matter.  

Picker; picker system; picker harvester (cotton)
A cotton harvesting system that pulls the cotton from the plant. Pickers are used on most cotton and produce cleaner fiber. See Pick(ed)(ing), and Stripper cotton; stripper system; stripper harvester.

See Also: 
cotton.  fiber.  Pick(ed)(ing).  plant.  Stripper cotton; stripper system; stripper harvester.  

Picking (wool)
The process of opening wool fiber and removing vegetable matter and other foreign material.

See Also: 
foreign material.  process.  vegetable matter.  

Pierce's Disease
A bacterial infection of the grape vine that is spread by an insect called the blue-green sharpshooter.

Pigford v. Glickman
See Pigford v. Veneman.

See Also: 
Pigford v. Veneman.  

Pigford v. Veneman
The class action suit by African-American producers against the USDA claiming racial discrimination in farm lending and benefit programs. The class is defined as all African-Americans who (a) farmed, or attempted to farm, between January 1, 1981, and December 31, 1996; (b) applied to the USDA during that time for participation in a federal farm credit or benefit program and who believed they were discriminated against on the basis of race; and (c) filed a discrimination complaint on or before July 1, 1997, regarding the treatment by the USDA of their credit or benefit application. Attorneys for the group of African-American producers and the USDA reached an agreement to settle the lawsuit on January 5, 1999. A consent decree was approved on April 14, 1999. The case was originally Pigford v. Glickman. See Track A, and Track B.

See Also: 
class.  class action.  consent decree.  farm.  Pigford v. Glickman.  program.  Track A.  Track B.  

Pilot Program for Enrollment of Wetland and Buffer Acreage in the Conservation Reserve
See Farmable Wetland Pilot Project (FWP).

See Also: 
Farmable Wetland Pilot Project (FWP).  

Pine shoot beetle (PSB)
An exotic pest, native to Europe, that attacks many pine species.

See Also: 
exotic pest.  species.  

Pipeline stocks
The minimum quantity of any commodity required to carry on normal processing and marketing operations.

See Also: 
commodity.  marketing.  processing.  

Plan of insurance
A risk protection program established by an insurer under which the insurer issues policies or contracts. Such plans are actuarially based, describe risks insured against and conditions on the payment of indemnities, and disclose premiums or other contributions required.

See Also: 
program.  

Plant
Under the Plant Protection Act, any plant (including any plant part) for or capable of propagation, including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture, pollen, a shrub, a vine, a cutting, a graft, a scion, a bud, a bulb, a root, and a seed.

See Also: 
Plant Protection Act.  

Plant Genome Mapping Program
See Agricultural Genome Initiative.

See Also: 
Agricultural Genome Initiative.  

Plant Protection Act (P.L. 106-224) (7 U.S.C. ?? 7701-7772)
Signed into law June 20, 2000, as Title IV of the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000. The act authorizes the USDA to prohibit and restrict the importation, entry, exportation, or movement in interstate commerce of any plant, plant product, biological control organism, noxious weed, article, or means of conveyance if the USDA determines the action is necessaryto prevent the introduction or dissemination of a plant pest or noxious weed. See Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974, Federal Plant Pest Act, and Plant Quarantine Act.

See Also: 
Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000.  biological control.  Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974.  Federal Plant Pest Act.  introduction.  noxious weed.  pest.  plant.  plant product.  Plant Quarantine Act.  

Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ)
The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) unit that protects the nation's agricultural resources from the international spread of plant and animal pests and diseases. PPQ inspectors at international airport terminals, seaports, and border stations check passengers and baggage for products that could harbor pests or diseases. PPQ also checks ship cargoes, rail and truck freight, and mail from foreign countries; certifies U.S. agricultural products for export; and helps combat plant pests within the U.S. PPQ's National Biological Control Institute provides leadership for biocontrol programs. PPQ also coordinates the development and execution of biotechnology regulatory policy for APHIS and other USDA agencies, and issues permits for the movement and release of genetically engineered plants and organisms. Another part of PPQ is involved with environmental monitoring and residue analysis.

See Also: 
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).  biocontrol.  Biological Control.  biotechnology.  export.  plant.  residue.  resources.  

Plant Quarantine Act (7 U.S.C. ?? 151-167)
Signed into law August 20, 1912, and amended in 1917, 1920, 1926, 1928, 1932, 1934, 1942, 1947, 1963, 1970, 1978, 1983, 1988, and 1994. The Act regulated the importation and movement of nursery stock and other plants and plant products within the U.S. to control the dissemination of injuriousplant pests and diseases. The Act was repealed by the Plant Protection Act.

See Also: 
nursery stock.  Plant Protection Act.  

Plant Variety Protection Act (PVPA) (P.L. 91-577)
Signed into law December 24, 1970. Administered by the Agricultural Marketing Service, it extends patent-type protection to developers of plants that reproduce seeds. Developers of new varieties of such plants as soybeans, wheat, corn, and marigolds apply to USDA for certificates of protection for 20 years for most species and 25 years for woody plants. USDA examiners determine whether the variety actually is novel and entitled to protection. The holders of certificates can turn to the courts to protect their inventions from exploitation by others.

See Also: 
Agricultural Marketing Service.  species.  variety.  woody.  

Plant germplasm
Living material (such as seeds, rootstock, or leaf plant tissue) from which new plants can grow. See Germ plasm; germplasm.

See Also: 
Germ plasm; germplasm.  plant.  stock.  

Plant growth regulator(s)
Substances (excluding fertilizers and other plant nutrients) that alter the expected growth, flowering, or reproduction rate of plants. See Growth regulator(s).

See Also: 
Growth regulator(s).  plant.  

Plant material centers
Centers that provide native plants to help solve natural resource problems. Centers are operated by or receive technical assistance from the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and develop conservation systems using plant materials. The process includes developing techniques for the effective use of plants to protect and conserve our natural resources. Scientists at the centers seek out plants that show promise for meeting an identified conservation need, and test their performance. Special emphasis is given to developing systems that reduce erosion; improving filter strips; creating, managing, or restoring wetlands; protecting grazing resources; protecting upper riparian areas and coastal shorelines; aiding low-input sustainable agriculture; and accelerating commercial production of previously released conservation plants. The work at the 26 centers is carried out cooperatively with state and federal agencies, commercial businesses, and seed and nurseryassociations.

See Also: 
conservation.  erosion.  grazing.  low-input sustainable agriculture.  Natural Resources Conservation Service.  nursery.  plant.  resources.  riparian.  technical assistance.  wetlands.  

Plant pest(s)
Any living stage of insects, mites, nematodes, slugs, snails, protozoa, other invertebrate animals, nonhuman animals, bacteria, fungi, other parasitic plants or reproductive parts, viruses, or organisms similar to or allied with any of these, or infectious substances that can directly or indirectly injure or cause disease or damage in plants or parts, orprocessed, manufactured, or other products of plants.

See Also: 
processed.  

Plant pesticides
Pesticidal substances that plants produce from genetic material that has been added to the plant. Bt cropsare an example of plants that manufacture pesticidal proteins from a gene for the Bt pesticidal protein that was introduced into the plants' own genetic material. See Biopesticide(s).

See Also: 
Biopesticide(s).  Bt.  plant.  protein.  

Plant product(s)
Under the Plant Protection Act, (a) any flower, fruit, vegetable, root, bulb, seed, or other plant part that is not included in the definition of plant; or (b) any manufactured or processed plant or plant part.

See Also: 
plant.  Plant Protection Act.  processed.  

Plant quarantine
A phytosanitary measure of confinement of regulated plants for observation, research, or further inspection, testing, or treatment in order to prevent the spread of pestsand disease.

See Also: 
inspection.  phytosanitary measure.  

Plantation (forest)
A forest stand regenerated artificially either by sowing or planting.

See Also: 
stand.  

Planted acreage
Land in which seed has been placed, appropriate for the crop and planting method, at a correct depth, and into a seedbed that has been properly prepared for the planting area and production practice normal to the area.

See Also: 
seedbed.  

Planting flexibility
Under the Federal Agriculture Improvements and Reform Act of 1996, the planting of any permitted crop, except fruits and vegetables (with exceptions), on contract acreage on the farm. Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1106), the planting of any permitted crop on base acres. See Flex acres (acreage); flexible acres (acreage), Flexibility, and Production flexibility contract(s) (PFC).

See Also: 
base acres.  contract acreage.  crop.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Flex acres (acreage); flexible acres (acreage).  Flexibility.  permitted.  permitted crop.  Production flexibility contract(s) (PFC).  

Plastic cheese; plastic curd
A classification of cheeses whose curd is heated and then kneaded to form various shapes. Mozzarella, provolone, and string cheeses are plastic cheeses and may be described as string-like.

See Also: 
curd.  

Plot
A contiguous tract of land with uniform land characteristics.

Plow pan
See Hardpan.

See Also: 
Hardpan.  

Plug
See Partial county yield average.

See Also: 
Partial county yield average.  

Plum pox virus
Also known as sharka. A virus that affects stone fruits, including plums, peaches, apricots, and almonds, by causing the fruit to become deformed or blemished withringspot.

See Also: 
ringspot.  

Plurilateral agreement(s)
Generally, a narrower group of signatories than in multilateral agreements. Although most of the obligations within the World Trade Organization are multilateral, in which all signatories subscribe, four plurilateral agreements with limited signatories are included: (a) fair trade in civil aircraft, (b) open competition in government procurement, (c) dairy, and (d) trade in meat.

See Also: 
meat.  World Trade Organization.  

Point sampling (scouting)
A scouting method that relies on randomly selecting a prescribed number of sites or points within a field for intensive scouting of a predetermined number of plants or feet of row (best suited for uniform fields). See Random sampling (scouting), Sample(s); sampling, and Scout(ing).

See Also: 
Random sampling (scouting).  Sample(s); sampling.  Scout(ing).  

Point source(s); point source pollution (PSP)
Under the Clean Water Act of 1972, a source of pollution from any discernable, confined, and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. The Act exempts agricultural stormwater discharges from the definition of a point source. The agricultural stormwater exemption, however, does not apply to dischargeassociated with the land application of animal wastes originating from a CAFO, nor a discharge that is not the result of proper adherence to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program. The CWA provides that all point sources of water pollution that discharge or add pollution to waters are subject to having a NPDES permit.

See Also: 
Clean Water Act of 1972.  concentrated animal feeding operation.  discharge.  NPDES.  stock.  

Polarimeter
Instrument used in sugar analysis to measure the amount of rotation of polarised light when passed through a sugar solution. The amount of rotation provides an estimate of the amount of sucrose solution.See Polarization (pol), and Saccharimeter.

See Also: 
Polarization.  Saccharimeter.  sucrose.  

Polarization (pol)
An estimate of the sucrose content of sugar through use of a saccharimeter or polarimeter. See Sugar degree(s).

See Also: 
polarimeter.  saccharimeter.  sucrose.  Sugar degree(s).  

Policy research center(s)
Centers at state experiment stations, colleges and universities, other research institutions, private organizations, and corporations that conduct objective and operationally independent research and education programs on (a) the farm and agricultural sectors, (b) the environment, (c) rural families, households and economies, and (d) consumers, food, and nutrition. Funding is authorized under the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act (Sec. 1419A) (7 U.S.C. ? 3155) and may be provided for disciplinary and interdisciplinary research and education concerning policy research activities including (a) quantification of the implications of public policies and regulations, (b) development of theoretical and research methods, (c) collection and analysis of data for policy makers, analysts, and individuals, and (d) development of programs to train analysts. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 7103) reauthorized the USDA to make grants to and enter into agreements with policy research centers.

See Also: 
authorized.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act.  rural.  

Political union
Occurs when countries agree to common policies in almost every sector including economic, foreign, and defense policies.

Polled
Cattle that are naturally without horns.

Pollination; pollinate(d)
The transfer of pollen from the male organ to the receptive part of a female organ. The three pollination methods are air-borne pollination, insect pollination, and self-pollination.

Pollutant(s)
(1) Too much of one substance at the wrong place and at the wrong time. (2) Under the Clean Water Act of 1972, any type of industrial, municipal, and agricultural waste discharged into water.

See Also: 
agricultural waste.  Clean Water Act of 1972.  

Poly pipe
Flexible plastic irrigation tubing.

See Also: 
irrigation.  

Polyculture; polycultural
The growing of many crops at once in the same field.

Polyhydric Alcohol Program
A program established to provide world-priced sugar to U.S. manufacturers of polyhydric alcohols. Participating U.S. manufacturers purchase world-priced sugar from licensed refiners or their agents for use in the production of polyhydric alcohols, except polyhydric alcohols that are used as a substitute for sugar in human food consumption. See Refined Sugar Re-export Program, and Sugar-Containing Products Re-export Program.

See Also: 
program.  Refined Sugar Re-export Program.  Sugar-Containing Products Re-export Program.  

Polyhydric alcohol (polyol) (polyalcohol)
An alcohol used primarily for industrial products including resins for paints, inks, stabilizers, and lubricants.

Polymers
A chemical compound or mixture that can use corn, corn starches, and potatoes to make biodegradable packing fill, and fast-food cups, lids, straws, and cutlery. It is also being used as a biodegradable coating on fast-food wrapping paper and paperboard containers.

See Also: 
biodegradable.  

Polynuclear (polycyclic) aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
Disease-causing compound found in tobacco smoke. Also tar.

Polyunsaturated; polyunsaturated fatty acid(s)
See Fatty acid(s).

See Also: 
Fatty acid(s).  

Pomology
The science or study of growing fruit.

Pond(s)
In the production of warmwater fish, the common name for the earthen reservoir used in fishculture. Ponds are typically either (a) dike ponds that have four raised levees, a rectangular shape, level bottoms, and a water depth of around four to eight feet; or (b) hill ponds that have one main levee that dams a gully or valley, an irregular shape, steep bottom slopes, and can be 10- to 20-feet deep near the levee. Many pond producers must pump well water to fill their ponds, and water quality is controlled by mechanical aeration to maintain sufficient oxygen levels. The popular size for channel catfish ponds is 20 acres. Also Fish pond(s). See Net pen, Raceway(s), and Recirculating systems.

See Also: 
channel catfish.  culture.  Fish pond(s).  Recirculating systems.  

Pool milk
Milk received at a pool plant that is subject to the pricing provisions of a federal marketing order.

See Also: 
federal marketing order.  pool plant.  

Pool plant (milk)
A plant at which milk or milk products are received, processed, or packaged, excluding on-farm facilities for the separation of cream and skim or for the removal of water. See Nonpool plant.

See Also: 
farm.  Nonpool plant.  processed.  

Pool value (dairy)
See Total value of producer milk.

See Also: 
Total value of producer milk.  

Pool(s)(ing)(ed)
(1) For tobacco, an organization of producers created for the purpose of poolingand marketing their tobaccoin an orderly and profitable manner. The producer cooperatives that administer the federal price-support system are pools. (2) The method used in determining how funds in a market will be distributed among producerssupplying milk. There are three methods of pooling returns to producers (individual handler pool, marketBwide pool, and cooperative pool). See Equalization pool, and Depooled. (3) Under the former peanut program, the pools maintained by peanut area marketing associations, for both quota peanuts and additionals, that distributed the net gain on peanut sales in proportion to the value of peanuts placed in the pools by each producer.

See Also: 
cooperative pool.  Equalization pool.  individual handler pool.  market.  marketing.  producer.  quota peanuts.  tobacco.  

Pop-up fertilizer(s)
See Starter fertilizer(s).

See Also: 
Starter fertilizer(s).  

Porcine
Swine.

Porcine Stress Syndrome (PSS)
A genetic condition that causes pigs to be especially susceptible to stress and to produce carcasses with undesirable meat quality; often results in a pale, soft,exudative appearance of the lean carcass. See Pale, soft, exudative (PSE), and Pale, soft, watery (PSW).

See Also: 
lean.  meat.  Pale, soft, exudative (PSE).  Pale, soft, watery (PSW).  

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)
Disease of swine that can cause abortion and pneumonia.

Porcine somatotropin (pST)
See Growth hormones; growth promotants.

See Also: 
Growth hormones; growth promotants.  

Pork bellies
One of the major cuts of the hog carcass from the belly area of a pig; used for bacon.

Port shopping
Attempting to import products via a different port entry than the port that initially refused admission of the products into the U.S.

See Also: 
import.  

Portable grain bin
A structure used to shelter grain and designed to be disassembled without significant damage to its component parts.

See Also: 
grain.  

Position
In commodity futures trading, either going long or going short in the market.

See Also: 
commodity futures trading.  market.  

Positive adjustment
Under Section 201, relief from expanding imports including facilitating the orderly transfer of resources to more productive pursuits, enhancing competitiveness, or other means of adjustment to new conditions of competition.

See Also: 
resources.  Section 201.  

Posted county price (PCP)
(1) The local county price, calculated by the Farm Service Agency by taking the terminal elevator price and subtracting shipping and other transfer costs to the local area. This is the world price utilized in marketing loan repayment calculations for wheat, feedgrains, and soybeans. If the posted county price for these commodities is less than the loan rate plus accrued interest, then the marketing loan repayment provisions will be in effect. (2) In the use of commodity certificates, in order to ensure that certificate holders across the country received the same value of commodity regardless of location, the Commodity Credit Corporationestablished posted county prices for wheat, feed grains, and oilseeds calculated by using prices collected from the terminal markets that influenced the prices in the specific county.

See Also: 
certificate.  commodity.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  Farm Service Agency.  feed grains.  loan rate.  marketing loan repayment.  oilseeds.  terminal elevator.  world price.  

Postemergence
The period after the emergence of a specified weed or crop. See Late postemergence, and Pre-emergence.

See Also: 
Late postemergence.  Pre-emergence.  weed.  

Postemergence (directed)
Herbicide placement directed to the base of the plants after seedling emergence. Weed control is better if the plants have achieved a significant height differential over the weeds. See Layby (application),Overtop application; over-the-top application,Postemergence over-the-top, and Pre-emergence application.

See Also: 
Herbicide.  Overtop application; over-the-top application.  Pre-emergence application.  Weed.  

Postemergence over the top
Pesticides applied directly over the canopy of both crops and weeds; sometimes represents a salvage treatment. See Layby (application), Overtop application; over-the-top application,Postemergence (directed), and Pre-emergence application.

See Also: 
canopy.  Overtop application; over-the-top application.  Postemergence (directed).  Pre-emergence application.  

Postharvest operations; post-harvest; post production
The steps in the process between harvesting and consumption (handling, processing, and marketing).

See Also: 
handling.  marketing.  process.  processing.  

Postmortem (inspection)
Food Safety and Inspection Service inspectors' review of livestock and poultry carcasses, carcass parts, and viscera after slaughter.

See Also: 
Food Safety and Inspection Service.  livestock.  poultry.  

Potable (water)
Water of high quality intended for drinking, cooking, and cleaning.

Potable reuse
The use of reclaimed water in drinking water supplies; usually treated wastewater that goes directly to a water treatment plant.

See Also: 
reclaimed water.  wastewater.  

Potassium (K)
See Macronutrient(s).

See Also: 
Macronutrient(s).  

Potentially hazardous food
Natural or synthetic food that requires temperature control because it is in a form capable of supporting the rapid and progressive growth of infectious or toxic microorganisms.

See Also: 
microorganisms.  toxic.  

Pothole(s) (prairie)
A wetlands depression (generally circular, elliptical, or linear in shape) occurring in glacial outwash plains, moraines, till plains, and glacial lake plains; most typically found in the northern Great Plains region.

See Also: 
Great Plains.  till.  wetlands.  

Potted flowering plants
Those plants that normally produce flowers, primarily in pots or similar containers, whether grown under cover or in field operations. These are typically used for interior decoration. See Foliage plants.

See Also: 
Foliage plants.  

Poult
A young turkey, of either sex, that is between one day and a couple of weeks old.

See Also: 
young turkey.  

Poultry
(1) Under the Packers and Stockyards Act, chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, and other domestic fowl. (2) Any domesticated bird, whether live or dead. Frequently it is used to refer to poultry meat plus skin and fat, within natural proportions either for the whole bird or for the poultry part referenced in the product name or ingredient statement.

See Also: 
Packers and Stockyards Act.  poultry meat.  

Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957 (P.L. 85-172) (21 USC ?? 451 et seq.)
Signed into law August 28, 1957. Gave to the USDA authority to inspect all poultry and poultry products (including all domesticated birds), and to regulate the processing and distribution of the same. The Act also gave the USDA authority to prevent the movement and sale, in interstate and foreign commerce, of any poultry or poultry products that have been adulterated or misbranded. See Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906, Processed Products Inspection Improvement Act of 1986, and Wholesome Meat Act of 1967.

See Also: 
adulterated.  Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.  misbranded.  poultry.  Processed Products Inspection Improvement Act of 1986.  processing.  Wholesome Meat Act of 1967.  

Poultry byproduct meal
Composed of ground, rendered, or clean parts of the carcass of slaughtered poultry. It contains heads, feet, underdeveloped eggs, and visceral organs but does not contain feathers. The product contains approximately 59 percent good-quality protein.

See Also: 
clean.  poultry.  protein.  

Poultry cut-up
Poultrycarcasses are not sectioned into primal cuts; however, they are sectioned into major parts: breast, wing, leg, thigh, drumstick, and back.

See Also: 
Poultry.  primal.  

Poultry food product
A food containing a poultry product as an ingredient. Exemptions include sandwiches, bullion cubes, broth, some gravies, some sauces, seasonings, flavorings, fat capsules, retail products containing less than two percent cooked poultry meat or less than three percent raw poultry meat, retail products containing less than 10 percent poultry ingredients, and institutional products containing less than 15 percent poultry meat.

See Also: 
poultry.  poultry meat.  

Poultry grower
Under the Packers and Stockyards Act, any person engaged in the business of raising and caring for live poultry for slaughter by another, whether the poultry is owned by such person or by another, but not an employee of the owner of such poultry.

See Also: 
Packers and Stockyards Act.  poultry.  

Poultry growing arrangement
Under the Packers and Stockyards Act, any growout contract, marketing agreement, or other arrangement under which a poultry grower raises and cares for live poultry for delivery for slaughter, in accord with another's instructions.

See Also: 
contract.  delivery.  marketing.  Packers and Stockyards Act.  poultry.  poultry grower.  

Poultry inspection
See Meat and poultry inspection, and Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957.

See Also: 
Meat and poultry inspection.  Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957.  

Poultry meat
Generally understood to be poultry muscle tissue, with no skin or fat included. Unless otherwise specified, it is assumed to be skinless and deboned.

Poultry processing
During conventional processing, poultry carcasses are eviscerated, then undergo examination for fecal contamination and other defects at a USDA inspection station. Uncontaminated carcasses then pass through an extensive final washing procedure, via an inside-outside-bird-washer, before proceeding on to hydrocooling. See Off-line (offline) (re)processing, and Rework.

See Also: 
hydrocooling.  inspection.  Off-line (offline) (re)processing.  poultry.  processing.  Rework.  

Poultry tender
Any strip of breast meat from poultry.

See Also: 
meat.  poultry.  

Poultry tenderloin
The inner pectoral muscle that lies alongside the sternum of poultry.

See Also: 
muscle.  poultry.  

Poultry trust
Under the 1988 amendments to the Packers and Stockyards Act, a statutory trust provision for live poultry dealers, similar to the packer trust, giving payment protection to live poultry growers and sellers. See Packer Trust.

See Also: 
packer trust.  Packers and Stockyards Act.  

Poundage quota(s)
See Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts).

See Also: 
Farm poundage quota(s) (peanuts).  

Powder(s)(ed)
A product obtained by removing water from pasteurized skim milk. The composition of the original skim milk is not altered. It usually contains three to four percent moisture and one percent butterfat. It is also called skimmed milk powder in international markets.

See Also: 
butterfat.  skim milk.  

Power take-off (PTO)
A powered shaft, usually extending from the rear of the tractor and driven by the tractor motor, to supply rotative power to an attached implement such as a combine, hay baler, or mower.

See Also: 
combine.  hay.  

Practical to replant
A determination by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation ?after loss or damage to the insured crop and based on all factors including moisture availability, marketing window, condition of the field, and time to crop maturity ?that replanting the insured crop will allow the crop to attain maturity prior to the calendar date for the end of the insurance period.

See Also: 
Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.  insurance period.  insured crop.  marketing.  

Prairie potholes
See Pothole(s) (prairie).

See Also: 
Pothole(s) (prairie).  

Pre-emergence
The period prior to the emergence of the specified weed or crop. See Late postemergence, and Postemergence.

See Also: 
Late postemergence.  Postemergence.  weed.  

Pre-emergence application
The application of a pesticide after sowing but before the crop to be protected emerges from the soil; in the case of an established perennial crop, before shoot emergence. See Layby (application),Overtop application; over-the-top application,Postemergence (directed), and Postemergence over the top.

See Also: 
Overtop application; over-the-top application.  perennial.  pesticide.  Postemergence (directed).  Postemergence over the top.  

Pre-shipment applications
With respect to methyl bromide, those treatments applied directly preceding and in relation to export to meet the phytosanitary or sanitary requirements of the importing country or existing phytosanitary or sanitary requirements of the exporting country.

See Also: 
export.  methyl bromide.  phytosanitary.  

Prebiotics
Foods or nutrients that are used by specific bacteria and that can be added to the diet to encourage the growth of such beneficial bacteria growing and thriving in the intestine. See Probiotics.

See Also: 
Probiotics.  

Precautionary principle
The principle that it is important to be cautious in the presence of scientific uncertainty.

Preceding year (tobacco)
The calendar year immediately preceding the year for which the allotments and quotas are established, or the marketing year preceding the marketing year for which the allotments and quotas are established.

See Also: 
marketing year.  

Precision agriculture (grants)
Authorized by the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Sec. 403(b)), and reauthorized through FY2007 by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 7129). USDA competitive grants, for periods not to exceed 5 years, to eligible entities to conduct research, education, or information dissemination projects for the development and advancement of precision agriculture.

See Also: 
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.  Authorized.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  precision agriculture.  

Precision agriculture technologies
Under the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Sec. 403(a)(4)), (a) instrumentation and techniques ranging from sophisticated sensors and software systems to manual sampling and data collection tools that measure, record, and manage spatial and temporal data; (b) technologies for searching out and assembling information necessary for sound agricultural production decision making; (c)open systems technologies for data networking and processing that produce valued systems for farm management decision making; or (d) machines that deliver information-based management practices.

See Also: 
Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.  farm.  

Precision farming; precision agriculture
(1) The use of the best available technologies, primarily based on the global positioning system, to tailor soil and crop management to fit the specific conditions found within an agricultural field or tract for the purposes of improving crop yields and management decisions, reducing input costs and pollution, and providing greater accuracy in farm recordkeeping. (2) Under the Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Sec. 403(a)(3)), an integrated information- and production-based farming system that is designed to increase long-term, site-specific, and whole farm production efficiencies, productivity, and profitability while minimizing unintended impacts on wildlife and the environment by (a) combining agricultural sciences, agricultural inputs and practices, agronomic production databases, and precision agriculture technologies to efficiently manage agronomic and livestock production systems; (b) gathering on-farm information pertaining to the variation and interaction of site-specific spatial and temporal factors affecting crop and livestock production; (c) integrating such information with appropriate data derived from field scouting, remote sensing, and other precision agriculture technologies in a timely manner in order to facilitate on-farm decision making; or (d) using such information to prescribe and deliver site-specific application of agricultural inputs and management practices in agricultural production systems. Also prescription farming, and variable-rate application technology.

See Also: 
agricultural inputs.  Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998.  agronomic.  farm.  farming system.  global positioning system.  input.  livestock.  precision agriculture technologies.  prescription farming.  remote sensing.  soil.  variable-rate application technology.  

Precision land forming
The reshaping of the surface of the land to planned grades for the purposes of drainage and erosion control, moisture conservation, and improving water quality.

See Also: 
conservation.  drainage.  erosion.  

Preclearance quarantine inspection(s)
Agricultural quarantine inspection activities on commercial agricultural products conducted in the country of origin prior to export to the U.S.

See Also: 
export.  quarantine.  

Preconditioning
The preparation of feeder calves for marketing and shipment; it may include vaccinations, castration, and training calves to eat and drink in pens.

See Also: 
feeder.  marketing.  

Precooling
The cooling of sweet corn (primarily through the use of chilled water) that is not consumed or processed within a few hours after harvest. The process is undertaken to reduce conversion of sugar to starch and prevent the loss of flavor and tenderness. See Hydrocooling.

See Also: 
Hydrocooling.  processed.  sweet corn.  

Predominantly eligible
Under the Conservation Reserve Program, a field is predominantly eligible for enrollment when two-thirds or more of the soils in the field meet the highly erodible land or land characteristics criteria. If planted to trees, a field need only be made up of one-third of the eligible soils to be predominantly eligible.

See Also: 
Conservation Reserve Program.  eligible.  highly erodible.  land.  

Preferences
The special advantages extended by importing countries to exports from particular trading partners, usually by admitting their goods at tariff rates below those imposed on imports from other supplying countries.

See Also: 
tariff.  

Preferential (trade) agreement
An agreement in which access to a larger market, generally in a more developed country, is offered without demands for reciprocity.

See Also: 
developed country.  market.  reciprocity.  

Preferential assessment(s)
See Differential assessment(s).

See Also: 
Differential assessment(s).  

Preferred certified lenders program
See Preferred lender program (PLP).

See Also: 
Preferred lender program (PLP).  

Preferred lender program (PLP)
The top status a lender can hold in the Farm Service Agency (FSA) guaranteed farm loan program. The PLP was developed to recognize experienced lenders by streamlining submission requirements, decreasing turnaround time on FSA actions, and allowing lenders to originate and service guaranteed loans as they do their nonguaranteed loans.

See Also: 
Farm Service Agency.  

Preharvest; preharvest food safety
The attempt to control zoonotic disease pathogens (such as campylobacter, salmonella, and E. coli 0157:H7) by enhanced detection methods on farm and ranch products before they are sold, changes in production practices, development of the colonization of harmless bacteria to compete on the skin surface with pathogens, and bioengineering to enhance the naturalresistance of plants to pathogens.

See Also: 
bioengineering.  campylobacter.  farm.  resistance.  salmonella.  

Preliminary farm marketing quota (tobacco)
For burley tobacco, the farm marketing quota for the preceding year.

See Also: 
burley.  farm marketing quota.  tobacco.  

Premium(s)
(1) The amount that a producer is charged for the purchase of crop insurance. A producer's premium depends on that producer's production history, the crop being covered, the county in which a covered crop is grown, and selection of coverage. Premiums are totally subsidized by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation for catastrophic coverage and heavily subsidized for additional coverage. See Catastrophic coverage (CAT), and Crop insurance. (2) The additional payment allowed by an exchange regulation for delivery of higher-than-required standards or grades of a commodity against a futures contract. (3) The amount added to a nonrecourse marketing assistance loanon a per-unit basis, relevant to the location where the loan collateral is stored at the time the loan is made. (4)An extra payment above the base price for livestock. (5) An amount paid over and above the price-support loan rate to encourage in producers not to forfeit commodities under loan to the Commodity Credit Corporation. (6) An upward adjustment to a median standardized sales or contract price due to superior quality. (7) The amount paid for milk in addition to the minimum regulated price.

See Also: 
additional coverage.  base price.  catastrophic coverage.  Catastrophic coverage (CAT).  commodity.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  contract.  covered crop.  crop insurance.  delivery.  exchange.  Federal Crop Insurance Corporation.  futures contract.  grades.  livestock.  loan.  loan collateral.  nonrecourse marketing assistance loan.  price-support loan rate.  producer.  under loan.  

Premix(es)
A blended mixture of one or more microminerals and vitamins added to feed.

See Also: 
feed.  

Preparation
Fiber "processability" in terms of degree of roughness or smoothness of ginned cotton.

See Also: 
cotton.  process.  

Prepared (meat)
Meat that has been slaughtered, canned, salted, rendered, boned, cut up, or otherwise manufactured or processed.

See Also: 
Meat.  processed.  

Preplant incorporated
The application and incorporation of grass and small-seeded broadleaf herbicides prior to planting.

See Also: 
broadleaf.  

Preponderance of the evidence
The showing of evidence that something is more likely to be true than not. This is the standard of proof that class members in Pigford v. Veneman Track B must use to prove their claim. This is a higher standard of proof than substantial evidence.

See Also: 
substantial evidence.  

Prepotency
The ability to consistently pass on character and type to the progeny.

See Also: 
progeny.  

Prescribed burning
The controlled application of fire to wild-land fuels, in either their natural or modified state, under such conditions of weather, fuel moisture, and soil moisture as to allow the fire to be confined to a predetermined area and at the same time to produce the intensity of heat and rate of spread required to further certain planned objectives of silviculture, wildlife management, grazing, and fire-hazard reduction. It seeks to employ fire scientifically so as to realize maximum net benefits with minimum damage and at an acceptable cost.

See Also: 
grazing.  silviculture.  soil.  

Prescribed grazing
SeeManaged grazing.

See Also: 
Managed grazing.  

Prescription farming
See Precision farming; precision agriculture.

See Also: 
Precision farming; precision agriculture.  

Preservation Loan Servicing Program
Under Farm Service Agency farmer program loans, the providing of homestead retention. If the FSA takes property into inventory, the original borrower is provided the opportunity to apply to lease or purchase their homestead and up to ten acres of land including farm buildings.

See Also: 
farm.  lease.  

President's Commission on Improving Economic Opportunity in Communities Dependent on Tobacco Production While Protecting Public Health
A commission, established by Executive Order on September 22, 2000, and comprised of advocates for tobacco producers, anti-smoking and health organizations, and rural community development proponents, charged with advising the President with opportunities for tobacco producersand communities dependent on tobacco production while also protecting consumers from the hazards associated with smoking.

See Also: 
rural community.  tobacco.  

Prevailing world market price
See Adjusted world price (AWP),Prevailing world market price (cotton), and Prevailing world market price (rice).

See Also: 
Adjusted world price (AWP).  Prevailing world market price (cotton).  Prevailing world market price (rice).  

Prevailing world market price (cotton)
Under theFarm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1204 (d)), the world market price for upland cotton used for purposes of calculating the marketing loan repayment provision. This price is adjusted to U.S. quality and location. See Adjusted world price (cotton), and Step 1 (cotton).

See Also: 
Adjusted world price (cotton).  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Step 1 (cotton).  upland cotton.  world market price.  

Prevailing world market price (rice)
Under theFarm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1204 (d)), a price determined by the Commodity Credit Corporationand based upon a review of prices at which rice is being sold in world markets. It also includes weighing of such prices through the use of information such as changes in supply and demand of rice, tender offers, credit concessions, barter sales, government-to-government sales, special processing costs for coatings and premixes, and other price indicators. See Adjusted world price (rice).

See Also: 
Adjusted world price (rice).  barter.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  concession.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  processing.  tender.  

Prevented (from) planting; prevented from being planted (PP)
(1) The inability to plant the insured crop by the final planting date due to excess moisture or because weather conditions are such that the seed would not be expected to germinate or produce a crop. (2) For program purposes, acreage prevented from being planted by natural disaster or conditions beyond the producer's control. Under federal crop insurance, prevented planting protection insurance is available. Under the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 crop insurance reforms, a producer prevented from planting has two options: (a) choose not to plant a second crop and collect 100 percent of the prevented planting crop insuranceguarantee for the first crop; or (b) if a second crop is planted, receive up to 35 percent of the prevented planting guarantee. A producer who chooses to plant a second crop will receive a premium reduction on the first crop commensurate with any reduction in indemnity payment received on the first crop. For purposes of calculating base acreage under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1101(a)(1)(A)(ii)), land on which a producer could not plant a covered commodity due to drought, flood, or other natural disaster or other condition beyond the control of the producer, as determined by the USDA.

See Also: 
acreage.  Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000.  covered commodity.  crop insurance.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  federal crop insurance.  first crop.  germinate.  indemnity.  insured crop.  premium.  producer.  program.  second crop.  

Prevented planting disaster payments
Under former programs, payments made to eligible producers to compensate them for being unable to plant any portion of the acreage intended for wheat, feed grains, rice, or upland cotton because of a natural disaster (such as drought or flood) or other conditions beyond the producer's control. Producers were not eligible for prevented planting disaster payments if prevented planting crop insurance was available in their county, unless the benefits were insufficient to alleviate an economic emergency. Under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec.196), a prevented planting noninsured crop disaster assistance program payment was authorized for producers prevented from planting more than 35 percent of the acreage intended for an eligible crop because of a natural disaster. See Disaster payments, and Noninsured (Crop Disaster) Assistance Program (NAP).

See Also: 
acreage.  authorized.  crop insurance.  disaster payments.  eligible.  eligible crop.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  feed grains.  Noninsured (Crop Disaster) Assistance Program.  prevented planting.  upland cotton.  

Preweaning gain
The weight gained between birth and weaning.

Price discovery
The use of the futures market to predict the value of cash commodities.

See Also: 
futures market.  

Price discrimination
The charging of a higher price in one or more segments of a market than in another market for similar but not necessarily identical goods.

See Also: 
market.  

Price driver (dairy)
See Price mover.

See Also: 
Price mover.  

Price election
Forcrop insurance purposes, the price basis to be used for computing the value per pound, bushel, ton, carton, or other applicable unit of measure for the purposes of determining the premium and indemnity.

See Also: 
bushel.  crop insurance.  indemnity.  premium.  

Price index
An indicator of the average price change for a group of commodities that compares price for those same commodities in some other period, commonly called the base period.

See Also: 
base period.  

Price limit
The maximum advance or decline permitted by the rules of the exchange from the previous day's settlement price for a contract in one trading session.

See Also: 
contract.  exchange.  settlement price.  

Price mover
The minimum price in one class that establishes the base price in another. Also base price. See Higher of (provision) (dairy).

See Also: 
base price.  class.  Higher of (provision) (dairy).  

Price pooling
Systems under which the returns frommultiple-pricing systems are averaged such that producers obtain an average return for sales of their products in all markets.

Price rally
A futures market move to higher prices.

See Also: 
futures market.  

Price reaction
A futures market move to lower prices.

See Also: 
futures market.  

Price stabilization cooperative(s)
A cooperative to which tobacco is consigned if the bid for such tobaccoat the auction sale barn does not exceed the loan price. In such cases, the grower is paid the loan price by a cooperative with money borrowed from the Commodity Credit Corporation. The cooperative redries, packs, and stores the tobacco as collateral for the CCC. The cooperative, acting as an agent for the CCC, later sells the tobacco, with the proceeds used to repay the loan plus interest.

See Also: 
CCC.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  cooperative.  grower.  loan.  tobacco.  

Price-later contract
In grain marketing, the present-day selling and delivery of grain, with the final price and payment to be set in the future. See Delayed pricing.

See Also: 
Delayed pricing.  delivery.  grain.  marketing.  

Price-support level
See Price-support loan rate.

See Also: 
Price-support loan rate.  

Price-support loan rate
The price for a unit (bushel, hundredweight, or pound) of a loan commodity or other eligible commodity that the government will support through price-support loans, purchase agreements, or payments. Price-support levels are statutorily set and administered by the USDA.

See Also: 
bushel.  commodity.  eligible commodity.  hundredweight.  loan.  Price-support.  

Price-support loan(s)
See Price-support program(s).

See Also: 
Price-support program(s.  

Price-support program(s)
Government programs that aim to keep commodity prices received by participating producers from falling below specific minimum levels. Price-support programs for loan commodities are carried out by providing nonrecourse loans to producers so that they can store their crops during periods of low prices. The loans can later be redeemed if commodity prices rise sufficiently to make the sale of the commodity on the market profitable, or forfeited to the Commodity Credit Corporation ifat the loan maturity date the market price is below the amount of the loan. In the latter case, the commodity is stored by the USDA and is not available to the market until prices rise above statutory levels that allow the CCC to sell the commodities. With a purchase agreement, the producer may sell the commodity to the CCC. Other price-support mechanisms include direct purchases and other payments. Commodities currently supported in the U.S. through some type ofprice-support mechanism include wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, rye, rice, soybeans, other oilseeds, cotton, wool, mohair, honey, dry peas,lentils, small chickpeas, peanuts, tobacco, certain dairy products, and sugar. See Nonrecourse marketing assistance loans, Peanut (price-support) program, and Sugar (price-support) program.

See Also: 
barley.  CCC.  chickpeas.  commodity.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  cotton.  dairy products.  direct purchases.  dry peas.  grain sorghum.  lentils.  loan.  loan maturity.  market.  market price.  mohair.  Nonrecourse marketing assistance loans.  oilseeds.  other.  Peanut (price-support) program.  Price-support.  producer.  purchase agreement.  rye.  Sugar (price-support) program.  tobacco.  wool.  

Price-support(s)
See Price-support program(s).

See Also: 
Price-support program(s).  

Prices-Paid Index
An indicator of changes in the prices producers pay for goods and services (including interest, taxes, and farm wage rates) used for producing farm products and in farm family living. When compared to the 1910-14 base period, it is known as the Parity index.

See Also: 
base period.  farm.  Parity index.  

Prices-Received Index
A measure computed on the basis of prices producers received, usually at the farm or in small local markets.

See Also: 
farm.  

Pricing grid(s)
The pricing of individual cattle carcasses based on a grid that provides premiums for desired carcass qualities and discounts for inferior quality. The goals of this pricing method are to price cattle based on their "true" value to consumers, reduce problems of inconsistency in the final product, and send appropriate market signals to producers.

See Also: 
grid.  market.  

Prickly pear
A cactus utilized as a forage substitute for grazing livestock. It is highly variable in nutrient content, depending on species, age, and plant part. The prickly pear is low in protein and phosphorus, but high in energy, water, fiber, and ash. The palatability of the prickly pear to livestock and wildlife is generally considered poor to fair because the spines deter grazing. However, when the spines are singed off by wildfires not severe enough to destroy the plant, the prickly pear becomes a desirable food source. Prickly pear can be troublesome on overgrazed pasturesand rangelands. Livestock will not graze on the prickly pear when spines are present nor within the general vicinity, thus reducing the grazing area. Also, the prickly pear can make travel difficult.

See Also: 
fiber.  forage.  graze.  grazing.  livestock.  nutrient.  phosphorus.  plant.  protein.  species.  

Primal cuts
Meat units resulting from the first major cutting of livestock carcasses into smaller units. Retail butchers generally receive primal cuts from packers, which they processfurther into retail cuts. The primal cuts are (a) beef - round, flank, rib, short loin, sirloin, plate, brisket, chuck, and shank; (b) pork - ham, loin, belly, shoulder, and jowl; (c) veal - leg, flank, loin, rib rack, breast, and shoulder; and (d) lamb - leg, loin, rib rack, breast, and shoulder. Also Poultry cut-up,and Wholesale cuts.

See Also: 
beef.  livestock.  Meat.  packers.  process.  retail cuts.  veal.  Wholesale cuts.  

Primary agriculture
Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, farming and all its branches such as cultivation and tillage of the soil; dairying; the production, cultivation, growing, and harvesting of anyagricultural commodity or horticultural commodity; and the raising of livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals, or poultry. See Secondary agriculture.

See Also: 
agricultural commodity.  Fair Labor Standards Act.  livestock.  poultry.  Secondary agriculture.  soil.  

Primary loan service program
Under the Farm Service Agency farmer program loans, the attempt to preserve a borrower's farming operation through loan consolidation, rescheduling, reamortization, interest rate reduction, deferral, debt set-aside, or the writing down of principal or accumulated interest charges. See Debt write-down, Loan servicing, and Set-aside(s).

See Also: 
consolidation.  Debt write-down.  loan.  Loan servicing.  reamortization.  rescheduling.  set-aside.  Set-aside(s).  

Primary servicing
See Primary loan service program.

See Also: 
Primary loan service program.  

Prime farmland; prime
Land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed,fiber, forage, oilseeds, livestock, timber, and other agricultural crops with minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor and without intolerable soil erosion, as determined by the USDA. See Unique farmland.

See Also: 
feed.  fertilizer.  fiber.  forage.  livestock.  oilseeds.  soil erosion.  

Priming
The process of harvesting tobaccoby removing ripened leaves from a plant by hand (also referred to as cropping). Flue-cured tobacco and cigar wrappers are harvested by the priming method. See Stalk cutting.

See Also: 
Flue-cured tobacco.  plant.  Stalk cutting.  tobacco.  

Principal outstanding
The amount of principal owed at any point in time during a loan term.

See Also: 
loan.  

Prion
A normal protein found in cells. A modified form of the protein becomes infectious and accumulates in neural tissues causing a fatal, degenerative, neurological disease. These abnormal prions are resistant to common food disinfection treatments, such as heat, to reduce or eliminate their infectivity or presence. See Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).

See Also: 
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).  

Prion disease
Diseases of humans and animals that affect primarily the nervous system. They can be sporadic (spontaneous), transmitted by infection, or inherited. The distinguishing characteristics of these diseases is the presence of microscopic vacuolization of the brain tissue, called spongiform degeneration, and of an abnormal form of a protein, called prion protein, which is a normal component in brain and other tissues. See Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Prion, Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE), and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).

See Also: 
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE).  prion.  Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE).  Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD).  

Prior appropriation doctrine
The system used in most western states for allocating water to private individuals. The doctrine is based on the concept of "first in time, first in right." The first person to take a quantity of water and put it to beneficial use has a higher priority of right than a subsequent user. The rights can be lost through nonuse; they can also be sold or transferred apart from the land. It is contrasted with riparian water rights.

Prior conversion; prior converted (wetland) (PC)
Under swampbuster regulations, a wetland that has been drained, dredged, filled, leveled, or otherwise manipulated prior to December 23, 1985, such that production of agricultural commodities is feasible. The land must have been farmed at least one year following the conversion and before December 23, 1985. Such land is not subject to swampbusteror Section 404 regulation unless it has been abandoned.

See Also: 
Section 404.  swampbuster.  wetland.  

Prior debt forgiveness
Debt forgiveness on at least one previous occasion. Under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996, the Farm Service Agency was prohibited from providing direct loans or guarantees to applicants who had received debt forgiveness on any FSA direct loan or guarantee. It included an exception allowing those who had received a debt write-down as part of primary loan servicing to obtain direct loans or guaranteed operating loans. The Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration and Related Agencies Appropriation Act, 1999, expanded the exception to allow applicants current on payments under a confirmed bankruptcy reorganization plan to obtain direct loans or guaranteed operating loans. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 5319) provided that the USDA may make a direct loan or guaranteed operating loan for annual farm or ranch operating expenses to an applicant who received debt forgiveness on not more than one occasion resulting directly and primarily from a major disaster or emergency designated by the President on or after April 4, 1996.

See Also: 
debt forgiveness.  debt write-down.  direct loan.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Farm Service Agency.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  guarantee.  

Prior slaughter week
For livestock price reporting purposes, the Monday through Sunday prior to a reporting day.

See Also: 
livestock.  reporting day.  

Priority area(s) (conservation)
See Conservation priority area(s).

See Also: 
Conservation priority area(s).  

Private activity bond(s)
Part of a state or local government bond issue of which (a) more than 10 percent of the proceeds are to be used for a private business use, and (b) more than 10 percent of the payment of the principal or interest is secured by an interest in property to be used for a private business use (or payments for the property) or derived from payments for property (or borrowed money) used for a private business use.

Private agribusiness sector
Agricultural producers, certified crop advisors, professional crop consultants, agricultural cooperatives, integrated pest management coordinators and scouts, agriculturalinput retail dealers, and other technical consultants.

See Also: 
input.  integrated pest management.  

Private applicator(s)
An individual who is certified to use or supervise the use of restricted-use pesticides for purposes of producing any agricultural commodity on property owned or rented by the private applicator.

See Also: 
agricultural commodity.  restricted-use pesticides.  

Private grazing land conservation assistance
See Conservation of Private Grazing Land Program (CPGL).

See Also: 
Conservation of Private Grazing Land Program (CPGL).  

Private grazing land enterprises
The diversification of grazing land use including establishing additional enterprises such as recreational opportunities for hunting, fishing, kayaking, canoeing, hiking, biking, picnicking, camping, bird watching, nature photography, or farm and ranch vacations.

See Also: 
farm.  grazing land.  

Private grazing land(s)
For purposes of the Conservation of Private Grazing Land Program, private, state-owned, tribally owned, and any other nonfederal rangeland, pastureland, grazed forest land, and hay land.

See Also: 
Conservation of Private Grazing Land Program.  forest land.  hay.  pastureland.  rangeland.  

Private voluntary organization (PVO)
A nonprofit organization providing social services and assistance. Food aid distributions under Title II of P.L. 480 utilize PVOs and nongovernmental organzations.

See Also: 
P.L. 480.  Title II.  

Prizing
The packing of tobacco into hogsheads.

See Also: 
tobacco.  

Probiotics
(1) A class of useful bacteria that normally inhabit the intestinal tract and help with digestion. Recent research has centered on the health effects through competitive exclusion of ingesting beneficial bacteria to prevent colonization by pathogens. (2) Foods that contain live, health-promoting bacteria.

See Also: 
competitive exclusion.  pathogens.  

Process(es)(ed)(ing)
(1) Cooking, baking, heating, drying, mixing, grinding, churning, separating, extracting, cutting, fermenting, eviscerating, preserving, dehydrating, freezing, packing, canning, jarring, spinning, dyeing, or otherwise manufacturing or enclosing food and fiber products. (2) Refining, mixing, compounding, chemically treating, heat treating, or similarly working materials and products. Vats, stills, ovens, furnaces, mixing machines, crushers, grinders, and related equipment or machines are usually involved. (3) Under the National Organic Program, cooking, baking, curing, heating, drying, mixing, grinding, churning, separating, extracting, slaughtering, cutting, fermenting, distilling, eviscerating, preserving, dehydrating, freezing, chilling, or otherwise manufacturing food, and packaging, canning, jarring, or otherwise enclosing food in a container. (4) A method of preparing green weight tobacco for storage in which the tobacco may be redried, stemmed, tipped, or threshed, and the resulting product packed in a container.

See Also: 
fiber.  National Organic Program.  spinning.  stemmed.  storage.  tipped.  tobacco.  

Processed Products Inspection Improvement Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-641) (21 U.S.C. ?? 601 et seq.)
Signed into law November 10, 1986. Title IV of the Futures Trading Act of 1986. The Act amends the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 to redescribe the manner and frequency of inspection of meat food products to include the requirement that the USDA take into account for each establishment (a) the nature and frequency of processing operations, (b) the adequacy and reliability of processing controls and sanitary procedures, and (c) the history of inspection compliance. The Act also changes the requirement that condemnedmeat food products be destroyed for "food purposes," to a requirement that they be destroyed for "human food purposes." See Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906, and Wholesome Meat Act of 1967.

See Also: 
Federal Meat Inspection Act.  Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.  Futures Trading Act of 1986.  inspection.  meat.  processing.  Wholesome Meat Act of 1967.  

Processed foods
(1) As defined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938, any food, other than a raw agricultural commodity, that has been subject to processing such as canning, cooking, freezing, dehydration, or milling. (2) Under the country-of-origin labeling program, a combination of ingredients that result in a product with an identity that is different from that of the covered commodity. Such items include raw salmon when combined with other ingredients to produce sushi, and peanuts when combined with other ingredients to produce a candy bar. However, blended and mixed covered commodities, where the covered commodities retain their identity, are still covered by program guidelines. Such items include mixed vegetables such as peas and carrots. Second, a commodity that is materially changed to the point that its character is substantially different from that of the covered commodity is also deemed to be a processed food item. This includes, but is not limited to, changes that occur as a result of cooking, curing, or restructuring. However, covered commodities that retain their identity when combined with other ingredients, such as water-enhanced case ready steaks, are not considered to be processed food items.

See Also: 
case ready.  commodity.  covered commodity.  curing.  Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.  milling.  processed.  processing.  program.  raw agricultural commodity.  

Processed meats
Items such as bacon, hams, sausages, and luncheon meats.

Processing aid
A substance that is (a) added to a food during the processing of such food but is removed in some manner from the food before it is packaged in its finished form; (b) added to a food during processing, is converted into constituents normally present in the food, and does not significantly increase the amount of the constituents naturally found in the food; or (c) added to a food for its technical or functional effect in the processing but is present in the finished food at insignificant levels and does not have any technical or functional effect in that food.

See Also: 
processing.  

Processing inputs
The quantity of raw materials used in processing or refining operations.

See Also: 
processing.  

Processing vegetables
Commodities sold primarily toprocessors, including (but not limited to) green lima beans, snap beans, beets, cabbage, sweet corn, cucumbers, chile peppers, green peas, spinach, and tomatoes.

See Also: 
sweet corn.  

Processor assurances (sugar)
Assurances provided to the USDA by sugar processors receiving loans under the sugar program that the processor will provide payments to producers that are proportional to the value of the loan received by the processor for the sugarbeets and sugarcane delivered by producers to the processor.

See Also: 
loan.  processor.  

Processor(s)
(1) Generally, persons who commercially use raw or semi-processed products, and change the character by mechanical, chemical, or other means for human and animal use. (2) In dairy processing, firms that process raw Grade A milk into fluid dairy products. (3) In sugar processing, processors convert raw cane sugar (two-step process) and beet sugar (refiners) into refined sugar products. (4) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 10503), any person engaged in the business of obtaining livestock or poultry for the purpose of slaughtering the livestock or poultry.

See Also: 
beet sugar.  dairy products.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Grade A milk.  livestock.  poultry.  process.  processed.  processing.  raw cane sugar.  

Processor-Funded Milk Promotion Program
Also Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Program. See Fluid Milk Promotion Act of 1990.

See Also: 
Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Program.  Fluid Milk Promotion Act of 1990.  

Produce Marketing Association (PMA)
A nonprofit global trade association founded in 1949 that serves over 2,400 members who market fresh fruits, vegetables, and related products worldwide. Its members are involved in the production, distribution, retail, and food service sectors of the industry.

Producer agreement(s)
Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1105), as a condition of receiving direct payments and counter-cyclical payments, a producer must agree to (a) comply with sodbuster provisions, (b) comply with swampbuster provisions, (c)comply withplanting flexibility requirements, (d) use the land on the farm in a quantity equal to the attributable base acres for the farm, and anybase acres for peanuts for the farm, for an agricultural use or conserving use, and not for a nonagricultural commercial or industrial use, and (e) control noxious weeds and maintain the land in accordance with sound agricultural practices if the agricultural use or conserving use involves the noncultivation of any portion of the land. See Sign(ing)(ed)-up.

See Also: 
agricultural use.  base acres.  conserving use.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  planting flexibility.  producer.  Sign(ing)(ed)-up.  sodbuster.  swampbuster.  

Producer allotments
A quantity provision in a fruit and vegetable marketing order that assigns a maximum quantity a producer or handler can provide to the market in a single season.

See Also: 
handler.  market.  marketing order.  producer.  

Producer assessment(s)
See Assessment(s) (programs).

See Also: 
Assessment(s) (programs).  

Producer milk
Skim milk and butterfatcontained in milk of a producerthat is (a) received by the operator of a pool plant directly from a producer or a handler, (b) received by a handlerin excess of the quantity delivered to pool plants, (c) diverted by a pool plant operator to another pool plant, or (d) diverted by the operator of a pool plant or a handler to a nonpool plant.

See Also: 
butterfat.  diverted.  handler.  nonpool plant.  pool plant.  producer.  Skim milk.  

Producer option payment(s) (POP)
Also Loan deficiency payments (LDP). See Inventory reduction program.

See Also: 
Inventory reduction program.  

Producer price differential (PPD)
In dairy pricing, the total pool value minus (a) butterfat, protein, and other solids payments made to producers, (b) Somatic cell count adjustments paid to producers, and (c) transportation and assembly credits, and plus or minus other adjustments. See Component pricing.

See Also: 
butterfat.  Component pricing.  other solids.  pool value.  protein.  Somatic cell count.  

Producer subsidy equivalents (PSE)
An economic concept used to estimate the effect of government policy by measuring the amount of the cash subsidy or tax needed to hold producers' incomes at current levels if all government agricultural programs were removed. PSEs and consumer subsidy equivalents (CSEs) are used to compare different policy tools and their effects on producer revenue and consumer costs across countries. As a result, most of the trade liberalization proposals hinge on the use of measures such as PSEs and CSEs in negotiating lower protection levels.

See Also: 
agricultural programs.  producer.  subsidy.  trade liberalization.  

Producer(s)
(1) Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1001 (12)), an owner, operator, landlord, tenant, or sharecropper who shares in the risk of producing a crop and is entitled to share in the crop available for marketing from the farm or would have shared had the crop been produced. (2) Persons engaged in the actual production of an agricultural commodity, including farmers, ranchers, persons engaged in aquacultural production, persons engaged in timber production, and persons engaged in turfgrass production. (3) Under the Agricultural Fair Practices Act, a person engaged in the production of agricultural products as a farmer, planter, rancher, dairyman, or fruit, vegetable, or nut grower. (4) Any person who produces milk for fluid consumption as Grade A milk and whose milk is (a) received at a pool plant directly or diverted by the plant operator, or (b) received by a handler.

See Also: 
agricultural commodity.  Agricultural Fair Practices Act.  diverted.  farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Grade A milk.  handler.  marketing.  operator.  person.  pool plant.  sharecropper.  tenant.  

Producer-handler
A person who (a) operates a dairy farm and adistributing plant from which there is a monthly route disposition in the marketing area; (b) receives no fluid milk products and acquires no fluid milk products for route disposition from sources other than from own farm production; (c) disposes of no other source milk as Class I milk except by increasing the nonfat milk solids content of the fluid milk products received from own farm production; and (d) provides proof that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources necessary to produce all Class I milk handled and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and are operated at the producer-handler's own risk.

See Also: 
distributing plant.  farm.  marketing area.  nonfat milk solids.  processing.  producer.  route disposition.  

Producer-settlement fund (dairy)
A separate fund into which all payments by handlers in each federal milk marketing orderare paid. Payments due any handler shall be offset by any payments due from that handler.

See Also: 
federal milk marketing order.  handler.  

Product-based pricing
See Component pricing.

See Also: 
Component pricing.  

Production Credit Associations (PCA)
(1) Local associations providing short-term credit directly to producers and farm-related businesses from funds provided by the Farm Credit Banks. (2) Cooperative lending groups, owned by their producer-borrowers, that provide short- and intermediate-term loans, for up to ten years, from funds obtained from investors in money markets. These associations are an integral part of the Farm Credit System.

See Also: 
Cooperative.  farm.  Farm Credit System.  producer.  

Production agriculture
The actual raising and harvesting of agricultural crops and animals as part of the total food and fiber agricultural system; as contrasted with agribusiness.

See Also: 
agribusiness.  fiber.  

Production contract(s)
A contract requiring the contractee (producer) to relinquish most control over production decisions, and the producer does not own the commodity being produced. In exchange, the producer usually receives an incentive-based fee for production services, and the contractor reimburses a portion of the farm's operating expenses. In addition, depending on contract terms, producers can benefit from technical advice, managerial expertise, and access to technological advances, such as high-quality breeding stock, that may not otherwise be readily available. The producer and contractor share the risks of both production and marketing of the commodity. The vast majority of production contracts involve livestock production. See Contract farming, and Marketing contract(s).

See Also: 
commodity.  contract.  Contract farming.  livestock.  marketing.  Marketing contract(s).  producer.  

Production control (programs)
Any government program or policy intended to limit production. These programs or policies have included acreage allotments, acreage reduction, set-aside, paid land diversion, quantity and acreage marketing quotas, payment-in-kind, production termination, and the Soil Bank.

See Also: 
acreage.  acreage reduction.  paid land diversion.  payment-in-kind.  program.  set-aside.  Soil Bank.  

Production expenses
Total cash outlays for production. Capital expenses are figured on annual depreciation rather than on yearly cash outlays for capital items.

See Also: 
depreciation.  

Production flexibility contract payment(s)
Producers enrolled in the seven-year production flexibility contract, during the one-time sign-up held in 1996, were eligible to receive contract payments. The total estimated spending levels, before any adjustments, ranged from $5.57 billion in FY1996, to $4.008 billion in FY2002. Eligible producers received payments based on a formula of 85 percent of the contract acreage multiplied by the farm program payment yield. The annual contract payment rate for each commodity equaled the total spending level for each commodity (after adjustments) for the fiscal year, divided by the sum of payment quantities for each commodity for all contracts for the fiscal year. Production flexibility contract payments have been replaced with direct payments under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.

See Also: 
commodity.  contract acreage.  Eligible.  farm program payment yield.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  fiscal year.  Production flexibility contract.  

Production flexibility contract(s) (PFC)
A contract for payments to be made to producers for contract crops, through 2002, under the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 111). Producers had to enroll, during the one-time sign-up in 1996, for a seven-year contract. Payments for each crop were allocated each fiscal year based on the Congressional Budget Office's February 1995 forecast of what deficiency payments would have been under the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990. In exchange for annual contract payments, the enrolled owner or producer had to (a) comply with conservation and wetland protection requirements, (b) comply with planting flexibility requirements involving fruits and vegetables, (c) use the land for an eligible agricultural activity, and (d) obtain at least the catastrophic level of crop insurance for each crop of economic significance, unless the producer waives, in writing, future emergency assistance. PFCs were transferable. PFCs were replaced with direct payments under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.

See Also: 
conservation.  contract.  contract crops.  crop insurance.  crop of economic significance.  eligible.  enroll.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  fiscal year.  flexibility.  Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990.  producer.  wetland.  

Production flexibility payment(s)
See Production flexibility contract payment(s).

See Also: 
Production flexibility contract payment(s).  

Production guarantee
For crop insurance purposes, the actual production history yield per acre, times the coverage level percentage selected, timesthe number of acres in the covered unit.

See Also: 
acre.  crop insurance.  unit.  

Production management
The responsibility for providing training, technical support, consulting, and management services to each agricultural production stage.

Production risk
Perils that can affect the quantity and quality of a farm's production.

Production sequence (wool)
Shearing, sorting, opening, cleaning, carding, drawing, possibly combing, twisting, or spinning.

See Also: 
carding.  combing.  spinning.  

Productive capacity
The amount that can be produced within the next season if all the resources currently available were fully employed using the best available technology. Productive capacity increases whenever the available resources increase or the production of those resources increases.

See Also: 
resources.  technology.  

Productivity
The relationship between the quantity of inputs (land, labor, tractors, feed) employed and the quantity of outputs produced. An increase in productivity means that more outputs can be produced from the same inputs or that the same outputs are produced with fewer inputs. Both single-factor and multifactor indexes are used to measure productivity. Single-factor productivity indexes measure the output per unit of one input at the same time other inputs may be changing. Multifactor productivity indexes consider all productive resources as a whole, netting out the effects of substitution among inputs. Crop yield per acre, output per work hour, and livestock production per breeding animal are all single-factor productivity indicators. The Total Farm Output per Unit of Input Index is a multifactor measure.

See Also: 
acre.  breeding.  Farm.  feed.  input.  livestock.  output.  resources.  

Progeny
The young, or offspring, of the parents.

Progeny records
The average, comparative performance of the progeny of parent animals.

See Also: 
progeny.  

Progeny testing
The evaluation of the genetics of an individual by a study of its progeny.

See Also: 
progeny.  

Program benefits
The various forms of financial assistance available to those producers who sign up and agree to comply with the requirements of government farm programs. These benefits may include, but are not limited to, eligibility under certain circumstances for price-support loans,counter-cyclical payments, Environmental Quality Incentives Program incentives, and Farm Service Agency credit assistance.

See Also: 
Environmental Quality Incentives Program.  farm.  Farm Service Agency.  

Program commodity(ies)
See Program crops.

Program crop(s)
The common term for certain agricultural commodities for which federal support programs are (or have been) available in the U.S. These include, or have included, wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, rye, extra-long staple and upland cotton, rice, milk, peanuts, soybeans, sugar, honey, wool, mohair, tobacco,or others as determined by Congress. The Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 established program crops to be wheat, corn, grain sorghum, oats, barley, upland cotton, and rice. The Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (Sec. 102) adopted the term of art of contract commodity to include wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, upland cotton, and rice. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 1001) adopted the term of art of covered commodity to include wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, upland cotton, rice, soybeans, and other oilseeds.

See Also: 
barley.  contract commodity.  covered commodity.  extra-long staple.  Farm.  Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996.  Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990.  grain sorghum.  mohair.  other oilseeds.  program.  rye.  tobacco.  upland cotton.  wool.  

Program payments
Payments provided to producers and agribusiness under the authority of federal legislation to enhance income or replace lost income, provide incentives to encourage the adoption of desired practices, stabilize the structure of agriculture, and protect the long-term interests of consumers and taxpayers.

See Also: 
agribusiness.  structure of agriculture.  

Program year(s)
Generally, for program purposes, the applicable fiscal year, crop year, or 12-month period (or less) as prescribed by statute, regulation, or contract.

See Also: 
contract.  crop year.  fiscal year.  program.  

Program yield(s)
See Farm program payment yield(s).

See Also: 
Farm program payment yield(s).  

Program(s)
(1) Organized government activity aimed at accomplishing a certain result. (2) For academic purposes, an umbrella of research responsibility (e.g., fruit breeding) divided into project subsets (e.g., small-fruit breeding and tree fruit breeding). (3) A coordinated set of activities, often government sponsored or encouraged, directed towards the accomplishment of a goal or combination of goals.

See Also: 
breeding.  

Program(s) (agricultural)
Examples are the federal price-support program including nonrecourse loans, purchases, and income support programs. Other agricultural programs include commodity storage, credit, research, energy, transportation, export, and conservation programs.

See Also: 
agricultural program.  commodity.  conservation programs.  export.  price-support program.  storage.  

Prohibited substance (organic)
A substance that is prohibited or not provided for, by law or regulation, in any aspect of organic production or handling.

See Also: 
handling.  organic.  

Prohibition on continuous coverage
The Federal Crop Insurance Act, as amended by the Agriculture Risk Protection Act of 2000, required participating producers in the federal crop insurance program to select a coverage level in multiples of 5 between the 55 percent and 85 percent normal yield level for the 2001 through 2005 crop years. This prevented producers from selecting any level between 55 percent and 85 percent (continuous coverage). Under previous law, producers could elect continuous coverage at any level between 55 percent and 85 percent; however, the premium subsidy was set at declining 5 percent increments. Restricting continuous coverage is a cost-saving measure. The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 10002) makes the prohibition permanent.

See Also: 
continuous coverage.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  Federal Crop Insurance Act.  federal crop insurance program.  normal yield.  

Projected county yield
Generally, determined on the basis of the yield per harvested acre of a commodity in a particular county during each of the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such projected county average yield is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, for trends in yields, and for any significant changes in production practices.

See Also: 
acre.  commodity.  county average yield.  

Projected farm yield
For any crop, the actual yield per harvested acre of such commodity on the farm during a representative term of years immediately preceding the year in which such projected farm yield is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, and trends in yields, and any significant changes in production practices. In no event may such projected farm yield be less than the normal yield for such farm.

See Also: 
acre.  actual yield.  commodity.  farm.  normal yield.  

Projected national yield
Generally, a yield determined on the basis of the national yield per harvested acre of the commodity during each of the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such projected national yield is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, trends in yields, and any significant changes in production practices.

See Also: 
acre.  commodity.  

Projected price
The expected price, established prior to planting, used to determine coverage for income protection and Revenue Assurance insurance policies. See Base price.

See Also: 
Base price.  income protection.  

Projected state yield
Generally, determined on the basis of the yield per harvested acre of such crop in the state during each of the five calendar years immediately preceding the year in which such projected yield for the state is determined, adjusted for abnormal weather conditions affecting such yield, for trends in yields, and for any significant changes in production practices.

See Also: 
acre.  

Projected yield
See Projected county yield, Projected farm yield, Projected national yield, and Projected state yield.

See Also: 
Projected county yield.  Projected farm yield.  Projected national yield.  Projected state yield.  

Promotion program(s)
See Commodity research and promotion program(s), and Checkoff programs.

See Also: 
Commodity research and promotion program(s).  

Proportional shares (peanuts)
Under the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002(Sec. 1302(2)(C)), if more than one historic peanut producer shared in the risk of producing the crop on a farm, the historic peanut producers receive their proportional share of the number of acres planted (or prevented from being planted) to peanuts for harvest on the farm based on the sharing arrangement that was in effect among the producers for the crop.

See Also: 
farm.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  historic peanut producer.  

Proportionate share states (sugar)
As a condition of a loan made to a processor under the sugar program for the benefit of a producer, the USDA requires each producerof sugarcane located in a state (not including Puerto Rico) in which there are in excess of 250producers of sugarcane to report the sugarcane yields and acres planted to sugarcane.

See Also: 
loan.  processor.  producer.  

Proportionate share(s) (sugar)
The limitation on the acreage of sugarcane that may be harvested for sugar or seed during a crop year that allotments are in effect, if the USDA determines that the quantity of sugarcane produced by producers in the area covered by an allotment will be in excess of the quantity needed to enable processors to fill the allotment for the crop year and provide a normal carryover inventory of sugar.

See Also: 
acreage.  allotment.  carryover.  crop year.  

Prorate(s)
A quantity provision in a fruit and vegetable marketing order that tries to even out shipments over a specified time period, usually weekly.

See Also: 
marketing order.  

Protected bases (peanuts)
A person that owns a farm with a peanut poundage quota protected under a Conservation Reserve Program contract is considered to be an eligible quota holder with respect to that poundage.

See Also: 
farm.  peanut poundage quota.  

Protection level
The level used in Group Risk Plan and Group Risk Income Plan insurance products for determining indemnity payments. A higher protection level results in a higher indemnity payment. See Maximum protection level.

See Also: 
Group Risk Plan.  indemnity.  Maximum protection level.  

Protectionism; protectionist
Usually a reaction by an industry, company, or national government to foreign competition. The most common type of protectionism is expressed in food and agricultural policy as an import tariff or import quota imposed to reduce imports and shield domestic producers.

See Also: 
import.  import quota.  tariff.  

Protein at the farm
2.9915 pounds of protein per hundredweight of milk. See Butterfat at the farm.

See Also: 
Butterfat at the farm.  hundredweight.  protein.  

Protein price(ing)
A variation of component pricing that involves establishing a price for the protein portion of milk. A protein pricing formula will often assign a portion of the total value to the fat portion and to the other nonprotein solids as well. See Class III protein price.

See Also: 
Class III protein price.  component pricing.  fat.  protein.  solids.  

Protein supplement
See Supplement (feed).

See Also: 
Supplement (feed).  

Protein(s)
The chemical building blocks, comprised of amino acids, from which cells, organs, and tissues are made. Proteins are also the basis of hormones, enzymes, and antibodies.

Proven yield(s)
Yields substantiated by records of crop sales or other documentation acceptable to local Farm Service Agency offices. See Actual yield(s), and Farm program payment yield(s).

See Also: 
Actual yield(s).  Farm program payment yield(s).  Farm Service Agency.  

Provenance
The geographic origin of seed, pollen, plants, animals, or genes.

Pseudocereal(s)
Plants, such as amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, whose seeds can be ground into flour but are actually broadleaf plants rather than cereal grains grasses.

See Also: 
amaranth.  buckwheat.  quinoa.  

Pseudorabies (PRV)
A disease of swine caused by the pseudorabies virus; an extremely contagious herpes virus that causes reproductive problems, including abortion, stillbirths, and even occasional death losses in breeding and finishing hogs.

See Also: 
breeding.  

Pseudorabies Eradication Program
A cooperative eradication program begun in 1989 involving federal, state, and industry participation. The target date for completion was 2000; however, the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Sec. 10505) extended authority for the program through FY2007. See Accelerated Pseudorabies Eradication Program (APEP).

See Also: 
Accelerated Pseudorabies Eradication Program.  Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.  program.  

Public (seed) varieties
Seed varieties developed by state or federal institutions and released nonexclusively.

Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-188)
Signed into law June 12, 2002. Its purpose is to improve the ability of the U.S. government to respond to acts, or threatened acts, of bioterrorism. This sweeping law imposes significant new responsibilities upon the Food and Drug Administration and the industries it regulates. The Act mandates a food security strategy, increases the role of theFDA, provides for more extensive recordkeeping, and enhances FDA inspections of imported foods at ports of entry.

See Also: 
bioterrorism.  Food and Drug Administration.  food security.  

Public Law 480 (P.L. 480)
See P.L. 480.

See Also: 
P.L. 480.  

Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 (PRIA) (P.L 95 514) (43 U.S.C. ??1901-1908)
Signed into law October 25, 1978. The Act required the USDA and the Department of the Interior to establish and maintain a complete, centralized inventory of range condition records and trends, and reaffirmed grazing as the primary desired use of federal grasslands. Grazing concessions were granted according to a permit system. The Act also changed the formula for computing the grazing fee, and mandated a minimum contribution of grazing fees to be placed in a range improvement fund.

See Also: 
Grazing.  grazing fee.  range condition.  range improvement.  

Public elevator(s)
Traditionally, a commercial facility offering fee-based, commingled grain storage to the public. See Public warehouse(s).

See Also: 
Public warehouse(s).  

Public health pesticide
A minor-use pesticide used predominantly in public health programs for vector control or other health protection uses against viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms (other than those on or in living man or other living animal).

See Also: 
minor-use pesticide.  vector.  

Public land(s)
Any land and interest in land outside of Alaska owned by the U.S. and administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Bureau of Land Management. In common usage, public lands may refer to all federal land no matter what agency has responsibility for its management.

See Also: 
Bureau of Land Management.  

Public rangelands
Rangelands administered by the Bureau of Land Management or the USDA through the Forest Service in the sixteen contiguous Western states on which there is domestic livestock grazing or that may be suitable for domestic livestock grazing.

See Also: 
Bureau of Land Management.  Forest Service.  grazing.  livestock.  sixteen contiguous Western states.  

Public right to know
The basic recognition that citizens have a right to know about their exposures to potentially hazardous toxic substances.

Public tender market
Purchasing by some governments, including many recipients under P.L. 480 programs, government food agencies, and others. Buyers publicly specify their requirements, terms, and deadlines for offers, as well as consider offers from any company.

Public warehouse(s)
Any elevator, mill, warehouse, terminal, or other structure or facility in which grain and other agricultural commodities are received for storing, buying, selling, shipping, or processing. See Warehouse(s).

See Also: 
elevator.  grain.  mill.  processing.  warehouse.  Warehouse(s).  

Puke
When a party liquidates a long position in desperation because the current market price is decreasing rapidly.

See Also: 
long.  market price.  position.  

Pulled wool
Wool that has been removed from the skins of slaughtered sheep.

See Also: 
Wool.  

Pullet(s)
Young hen of less than one year of age that has not yet started to lay eggs.

Pulp
Mechanically ground or chemically digested wood used in manufacturing paper and allied products.

Pulp log
A log that does not meet the one-third merchantability standard for a saw log but contains a minimum of 50 percent sound woodfiber by volume.

See Also: 
fiber.  saw log.  

Pulpwood
Wood cut or prepared primarily for wood pulp for manufacturing into paper, fiberboard, or other products, depending largely on the species cut and the pulpin/g process.

See Also: 
fiber.  process.  species.  wood pulp.  

Pulses
A term used collectively for dry edible beans including small chickpeas, dry peas, and lentils.

See Also: 
chickpeas.  dry peas.  lentils.  

Purchase agreement(s); purchases
(1) Purchases of commodities by the government as a means of supporting prices by reducing the supply in the market. When purchase agreement programs apply, the Commodity Credit Corporation is required to buy offered commodities from eligible producers. The transaction price is the loan rate. Purchase procedures supply price protections similar to loans except that the producer does not receive payments under purchase programs until the commodity is delivered to the government. Purchases provide a less complex form of price protection than the loan program for producers who do not have immediate need for cash or who cannot meet loan storage requirements. Purchase agreements require an advance formal agreement between the producer and the CCC; other purchase programs do not require any advance arrangement. (2) For some commodities, notably dairy products, the government initiates purchase operations to ensure that market prices are maintained at the support level. Purchases of dairy products (cheese, butter, and nonfat dry milk) are made from processors rather than from producers. Purchase programs of this type are called direct purchase programs. They are not continuous programs but are instituted by the government when markets are depressed. (3) The Agricultural Marketing Servicepurchases meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, egg products, dry beans, and tree nuts for distribution in the National School Lunch Program and other federal food assistance programs. Products are purchased through competitive bids or negotiated contracts. These purchases assist producers and processors by helping to maintain stable commodity prices.

See Also: 
Agricultural Marketing Service.  CCC.  commodity.  Commodity Credit Corporation.  dairy products.  direct purchase.  egg products.  loan.  loan program.  loan rate.  market.  National School Lunch Program.  nonfat dry milk.  poultry.  producer.  storage.  

Purchase of agricultural conservation easements (PACE)
A program that pays producers to keep their land available for agriculture. Landowners sell an agricultural conservation easement to a qualified public agency or private conservation organization. Landowners retain full ownership and use of their land for agricultural purposes. PACE programs do not give government agencies the right to develop land. Development rights are extinguished in exchange for compensation. See Purchase of development rights (PDR), and Transfer of development rights (TDR).

See Also: 
conservation.  conservation easement.  program.  Purchase of development rights (PDR).  Transfer of development rights (TDR).  

Purchase of development rights (PDR)
A program to buy easements voluntarily sold by land owners so as to prevent farmland from converting to other uses, especially residential or commercial development. The easements are valued so as to fairly compensate farmland owners for the lost development value of their farmland. See Purchase of agricultural conservation easements (PACE), and Transfer of development rights (TDR).

See Also: 
farmland.  program.  Purchase of agricultural conservation easements (PACE).  Transfer of development rights (TDR).  

Purchase price(s)
See Purchase agreement(s); purchases.

See Also: 
Purchase agreement(s); purchases.  

Purchased (inventory)
An animal that was born outside the business entity and acquired in the exchange for a sum of money. See Raised (inventory).

See Also: 
Raised (inventory).  

Purchasing hedge
Buying futures contractsto protect against a possible price increase in cash commodities that will be purchased in the future. At the time the cash commodities are bought, the open futures position is closed by selling an equal number and type of futures contracts as those that were initially purchased. See Hedge(s); hedging.

See Also: 
futures.  position.  

Purebred(s)
An animal of known ancestry, within a recognized breed, that is eligible for registry in the official herd book of that breed.

See Also: 
breed.  eligible.  

Purity (of class)
In grain inspection, a measure in the test sample for admixtures of different classes of grain.

See Also: 
grain.  grain inspection.  sample.  

Purveyor
A firm that purchases meat (usually from a packer), then performs some fabrication before selling the meat to another firm.

See Also: 
fabrication.  meat.  packer.  

Put-and-take stocking
The use of variable animal numbers during a grazing period or grazing season, with a periodic adjustment in animal numbers in an attempt to maintain desired sward management.

See Also: 
grazing period.  grazing season.  sward.  

Put; put option(s)
In commodity options trading, an option that gives the option buyer the right, but not the obligation, to sell (go short) the underlying futures contract at the strike price on or before the expiration date. See Call option(s), and Underlying futures contract.

See Also: 
buyer.  option.  strike price.  underlying futures contract.  

Pyrethroids
A pesticide widely used for controlling various insects. The common chemical names for pyrethroid active ingredients include cypermethrin, permethrin, and esfenvalerate. Also Synthetic pyrethroids.

See Also: 
pesticide.  Synthetic pyrethroids.  

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